Usually, sterility is assessed by the user and is generally understood to be completely free of bacteria, once the media has been disinfected.
Blood not only supplies haemoglobin to carry oxygen but also carries coagulation factors that are needed to heal bleeding wounds.
When surgery is indicated, the relationship between the doctor and the patient is seriously set. By explaining, the physician must give the patient confidence.
In this case, the blood pressure will increase continuously until the bradycardia appears and then the blood pressure drops, which is due to acute myocardial hypoxia.
Local anaesthetic toxicity acts at the central nervous system and in the heart, usually manifests as neurotoxicity, cardiotoxicity is common with strong local anaesthetics.
Small-molecule organic substances Urea, amino acids, glucose, these substances can diffuse across cell membranes easily, so they have little role in water regulation and transport.
Buffer is a substance capable of removing H ions or OH ions when these ions are present in the solution and cause the pH of the solution to change only very little.
The golden ligament, this ligament is usually stiff, extending from the neck area to the lumbar spine. When poked, it creates strong resistance and that is a sign of when poked through it.
When local anaesthetic is injected into the vein for venous anaesthesia, the local anaesthetic is concentrated in the area below the tourniquet, the local anaesthetic is located first in the large superficial veins
Because of the cardiotoxic effects of bupivacaine, it is best avoided, however it is indicated when there is a contraindication to the use of adrenaline.
Before reaching the axillary fossa, the musculoskeletal and capsular nerves were separated from the plexus
It is important to determine the sacral cleft, the patient lying on the side, back flexion and leg flexion is often used because the patient is comfortable and easy to perform the technique.
Between 2 adjacent vertebrae to form an intervertebral gap, this gap is wide or narrow depending on each segment. The spine is almost horizontal at the lumbar segment, so it is convenient.
In severe cases, the patient needs to give oxygen from the operating room to the post-operative period, a roll plate can be used to transfer the patient from the operating table to the vehicle, which is very convenient.