Clinical pharmacology lecture
Dosage of some antibiotics classified by group name, form, dose, and subject to use.
Some antihistamines pass into breast milk in large amounts; although the harmful effects are unknown, drug manufacturers recommend not to use; There are reports of children having dizziness and vertigo with clementine.
Most manufacturers recommend avoiding (or avoiding unless the potential benefit outweighs the risk); Ketorolac is contraindicated during pregnancy, labour, and delivery.
Hypokalaemia may precipitate coma (substitute low-potassium diuretics); risk of hypomagnesaemia in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis.
Perindopril: Use with caution and monitor reactions; often causes hyperkalaemia and other undesirable effects; Initial dose should be 2mg once daily.
The clinically significant propensity to thrombosis is associated with high plasma homocysteine levels, the disulphide oxidation product formed from two homocysteine molecules.
The ‘*’ before a drug name indicates interactions that should be avoided or where close monitoring is required.
Always remember that aminoglycoside drugs, amikacin, gentamicin, should not be administered directly intravenously but only intramuscularly and intravenously, the solution for infusion should be evenly dissolved in a large amount of sodium chloride solution.
Bacterial infections after thoracic surgery are classified as clean surgery. Common bacteria are Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, or less commonly E. coli, Proteus.
Creatinine is a breakdown product of phosphocreatine, an important energy storage substance found in muscle. Creatinine production is relatively constant, depending mainly on the muscle mass of each person.
The dose in children, calculated in kilograms of body weight, maybe higher than that in adults, because children have a higher metabolic rate.
Some drugs inhibit the infant's suckling reflex, eg phenobarbital. Certain drugs in breast milk may cause increased sensitization in the infant.
It is recommended to use drugs that have been widely used during pregnancy and are safe and effective. New and untried drugs should not be used.
The nervous system of the elderly is often susceptible to damage by commonly used medications such as opioid pain relievers, benzodiazepines, and Parkinson's drugs.
The degree of impaired renal function to adjust the dose of the drug. This level depends on the toxicity of the drug and whether the drug is completely excreted by the kidneys or partially metabolized to inactive metabolites.
Knowledge of pharmacokinetics guides patient drug selection based on the patient's medical condition, e.g. age, renal function
The plasma drug concentration/area under curve describes a patient's plasma drug concentration at various time points after drug administration.
In case of hypersensitivity or synergistic effects with other drugs, the treatment window will be lower, just lower drug concentration can still be effective.
The drug can be absorbed directly into the bloodstream when administered parenterally, absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract when administered orally or rectally as well as can be absorbed through other routes.
Drug selection should be based on the characteristics of the drug (eg, is the drug well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract…) and must be based on the specific patient (eg kidney function...).
Anticholinergics, antihistamines with anticholinergic properties, ganglion blockers, opiates, acetylsalicylic acid slow gastric emptying.
The nurse must recognize in the patient the clinical signs of one or more adverse effects; ensure that in the infusion solution, in the syringe, the active substances are physicochemically compatible.
Do not combine more than 5 drugs at a time, except in special cases, the doctor's level is not measured according to the length of the prescription
Mims interaction English, Drug interaction facts, David S Tatro, PharmD, 2003, (Incompatex French), Drug interactions and notes, Vietnamese
Alcohol can cause interactions with antidepressants and sleeping pills. Alcohol enhances the ulcerative bleeding effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.