Lectures on Candidas mushrooms

2021-02-05 12:00 AM

The main symptom is itching. The vulvar skin is red and smooth. Inside the edges, there is peeling skin (macaqueation) on covered with a white cream-like substance. Below is a bright red or dark red lesion

Outline of candidas mushrooms

There are many varieties with up to 300 varieties.

1952: 30 species of medically related species found.

Today: 35 species.

Among these species, C.albicans have the highest toxicity and often cause disease in humans.

There are also Tropicalist, C.pseudotropicalis, C. parakrusei, C. krusei, C. guillermondi that is also common clinically.
Candida species are often biophysical. But under favourable conditions, it causes disease (causes opportunistic diseases).

Location of canbicans in the yeast classification: (lvures)

Caliban’s is a type of yeast that reproduces by single-cell shoots. There may also be pseudo mycelium consisting of long cells stuck together by a small and fragile spot (levures = 8).

According to Lodder, there are two types of yeast:

Genuine yeast: produced by ascites (ascus) in which a typical yeast saccharomyces.

Yeast has no guarantee: forming a large family cryptococcal. And candida is one of the cryptococcoses family drugs. 

All diseases caused by candida are called candida’s disease (in the old days called levures, monilia).

The appearance of C. albicans on test

Fresh smear or staining (by gram staining or PAS staining) shows single round cells 2 - 4 size. In it the cell wall is thin. Next to it there are some budding cells. Next to it there are long, short cells, attached to each other by weak points that are easy to break.

In the histogram (biopsy of the diseased part) there is also a pattern of pseudomembranous fibrosis and dark-coloured bud cells. If it is a fungus, there are no budding cells.

In the skin can find budding cells in the layer: horns, spines, dermis.

Attention: on fresh or in fungal organism, when diagnosis must:

Seeing yeast cells growing scrambled buds, fibres "fake vermicelli".

The amount must be much compared with other impurities.

If the specimen is taken from a closed organ (e.g., pus sac, meningeal, abdominal cavity, urine) but the germinated shoots are found - "vermicelli" is considered positive.

On the skin if there are often multiple budding fungal cells and the "pseudo membrane" filament is also considered positive. Because candida albicans usually do not see biogas on healthy skin.

Factors favourable to a candidiasis infection

Intracellular factors

Acute or chronic infection.

Metabolic diseases: diabetes, obesity.

Lack of vitamins B (B2, B6, PP and C).

Use long-spectrum antibiotics.

Prolonged corticoid use.

Use of anti-cell drugs (for cancer treatment).

Diabetes, burns, cancer, HIV / AIDS, pregnancy.

After heart valve replacement surgery.

The patient is worn out, depleted.

Post-gonorrhoea inflammation.

Exotic factors

Old people, all teeth fall out.

Burn ulcers in patients with burns.

People often in contact with water, fruits, food, beer workers, laundry workers ...

Clinical symptoms

Shallow candida

Candidiasis of the oral mucosa of the tongue:

Also known as muguet (muguet) is common in children, the elderly or people with other diseases that debilitate the body, or use antibiotics, corticoids for a long time.

Symptoms of red mouth mucosa, there may be a few shallow slits that are grouped together to look like condensed milk, easy to remove. Or localized on the tongue, on the inside of the cheeks, sometimes spreading down the throat, oesophagus, sometimes with ulcers, necrosis. In frail old people, malnourished children, it is possible to coordinate with staphylococci and streptococci to make the mucous membrane rough.

Fractures caused by Candida:

The edges are red, cracked and erosive, or are accompanied by thrush in the mouth and may spread to the face. Often combined with staphylococcus cheilitis (Céilite).

Candidiasis in the interstitial:

Common in large interstitial such as groin, armpit, under the breast, elbows, elbows and fingers, and between toes. Lesions are red, well-defined, slightly raised, scaly spots, sometimes with blisters or pustules. The surface of the lesion is red and wet, the edge is uneven, friable, and has a thin scaly edge around it, the lesions are usually localized in the interstitial space. The slippers are so wet that the maceration condition increases in patches. Under the skin is bright red, easily infected by secondary infections that cause pus-forming lesions, so finding fungi is difficult. Lesions also spread to the pubic surface of the fingers.

Candidiasis of the scalp:

Less common. On the scalp, even in areas with hair, pus folliculitis (folliculate) is found. In that pus just found both staphylococcus and yeast. Hair falls out and doesn't regrow. the hair was not damaged, neither mycelium nor fungal spores were found.

Candidiasis:

Lesions that start are usually inflammation around the nail, sometimes with pus, sometimes not. Later, the nail thickens with cracks, sometimes brown again, but does not lose shine and does not break. There are no crumbles underneath the nail like in other onychomycosis. Sometimes the nail becomes cloudy and there are scaly patches under the nail that make it difficult to distinguish, sometimes with pus fluid at the base of the nail.

Vaginal and vaginal candidiasis:

The main symptom is itching. The vulvar skin is red and smooth. Inside the edges there is a peeling skin (macaqueation) over covered with a white cream-like substance. Below is a bright red or dark red lesion, an uneven edge, and a scaly border around it.
In the vagina, when infected, there are white spots like thrush, sticking to the vaginal wall, sometimes not clearly visible because of the secretion of a lot of mucus, mixed with pus. For pregnant women, the itchy sensation increases, such as burning, a lot of gas damage.

Lesions can spread to the groin, especially in people with diabetes. The disease is very persistent, sometimes the clinical symptoms are gone, but the fungus still exists in the vagina and under certain favourable conditions, it grows. Symptoms usually do not depend on the number of fungi found in the vagina.

Candidiasis:

Common in a wife with a yeast phlegmon.

Lesions begin with blisters, pustules, which when rupture leave a round, scattered or coherent, bright red patch of erythema, with an epidermal border, white, sometimes scaly, often itching.

Candida deep

Granulome monoliasique:

Less common.

Granulomatous:

Usually starts with a crack of the edge, a fall, then spreads down around the nail and then onto the nail and spreads to the scalp, sometimes both the body and lower extremities. This type has an inflammatory reaction that spreads deep down the dermis, forming very large, raised, warts-like lumps 4 to 8 mm in diameter, scaly above. If you stick to the bottom, there are bloody granules.

Sometimes the abscesses spread all over the body:

Subcutaneous abscesses spread to the scalp.

Candidiasis in the viscera

Bronchique (bronchique)

Common in people who drink a lot of tea in India and Ceylan, or farmers who beat rice by inhalation.

The patient coughs a lot, thick, sticky sputum in the mess, made up of peeling cells mixed with fungus, colourless.

The whole situation was less affected.

Hearing hissing lungs, especially in the bottom.

X-rays show only bronchitis.

Sputum testing found more yeast.

Candidose pulmonary

Cough and chest pain, rapid pulse fever.

Sputum is small at first, after much and sticky, with little blood spotting. Sometimes a secondary infection can lead to bloody sputum.

Hearing and X-rays can show pneumonic-like lesions in one or both fields.

May be caused by C. albicans or C. tropicalis.

Infection in other organs

Candidiasis of the tonsils: almonds have white papules.

Gastrointestinal candidiasis: usually occurs after long-term antibiotic use.

Candidiasis of the anus.

Candidiasis endocarditis.

Candida peritonitis and urinary tract.

Candidiasis haemolytic infection.

Candida infection in the nervous system (candidose).

Candidiasis of the senses (candidose).

Candida ear infections,

Candidiasis of the eye.

Treatment of candidiasis

Candida in the oral mucosa, tongue, wash, rinse with sodium carbonate solution or dot with 3% glycerinborate solution and with Daktarilgel.

Vaginal candidiasis washed with nabicarbonate solution, put antifungal drugs such as: nystatin, clotrimazole, polygynax, tergynan, miconazole, in combination with oral antifungal drugs such as Nizoral, sporal or fluconazole.

With candidiasis in the skin can apply colourants such as gentian 2%, million, Castellani, fungizone or cream nystatin, Nizoral, Canesten. If the lesions are large, in addition to topical use, anti-fungal drugs of the imidazole group must be taken as ketoconazole, itraconazole, and fluconazole.

Systemic candidiasis or candida granuloma can slow intravenous infusion of amphotericin B 0.25 - 1.0 mg / kg body weight / day or oral antifungal drugs of the polyene group or imidazole group.

In the treatment of candida, it is necessary to increase the intake of vitamins B of all kinds, to reduce the amount of sugar in the diet, when sick.