Today's radiologists not only have to know how to operate and use many modern machines, but also have basic knowledge not only about medicine but also about biophysics, physics, and informatics.
Conventional, almost classic radiographic techniques from more than 100 years have been effective in evaluating bone lesions.
When a tumor or lesion becomes infected, the inflammatory lesion affects the periosteum causing a reaction to form new bone from the inner surface of the periosteum.
Osteoarthritis, which begins as a condition of disordered, insufficiency of bone circulation due to inflammation of the bone vein thrombosis.
1. synovial hypertrophy; 2. concave defect around cartilage, under cartilage; 3. effusion in the joint socket; 4. destroy the cortical bone where the ligament is attached; 5. destruction of joint cartilage, narrowing of joints; 6. demineralization of the ends of bones.
Most primary tuberculosis resolves spontaneously after persisting for several months, leaving calcifications or not.
Pulmonary film has taken at the hospital bed because of the serious illness, unable to stand up, had to be taken lying down, of poor quality, only able to evaluate large lesions
On the straight film, standing position, the fluid concentrates at the bottom of the lung for a dark, uniform blur; whose upper limit is an indistinct fuzzy curve.
Causes of thickening and dilatation of the right ventricle. Due to urinary stagnation: mitral stenosis, chronic lung disease, pulmonary venous thrombosis, pulmonary valve injury alone.
The stenosis of the main artery causes hemodynamic instability, hypertension in the upper segment of the stenosis, thickening of the left ventricle, and increased systemic circulation, especially in the intercostal arteries.
Mitral regurgitation can be caused by ligament-column rupture after myocardial infarction, infective endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, or by a dilated orifice in Marfan syndrome, dilated cardiomyopathy.
When the ribcage is stretched, the heart is not resting on the diaphragm but in a suspended state. At that time, the longitudinal axis is almost parallel to the vertical axis of the body
Without a pulse, it is difficult to distinguish between an aneurysm and a mediastinal tumor. The difficulty is increased when the tumor in the mediastinum has 20 beats from the aorta or the heart.
When we see an area that is whiter than its normal level. It is the accumulation of drugs in the digestive tract.
The abdomen is very short, after passing through the diaphragmatic foramen and ending with the cardia, it empties into the posterior aspect of the large gastric aneurysm
Then, thanks to tomography images on ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance will show a direct correlation between the stomach and neighboring organs.
Affects adjacent organs: the large pancreatic head enlarges the duodenal frame: we can see the duodenal bulb anteriorly or posteriorly due to adhesions with the liver or in obese women.
Ulceration or tumor infiltrates creates short, axial narrow passages in the jejunum, which is indicative of epidermoid tumors
The colon is like a Ruban's solution with many symmetrical lines, in the middle of the two folds there is a Haustra line 1cm apart, 0.5cm deep, connecting the Haustra lines.
The normal liver has a uniform, gray-white structure, interspersed with tubular structures of the portal vein and the hepatic vein.
The ultrasound image shows that the kidney consists of two distinct regions: the renal sinus in the center of the kidney, and the renal parenchyma in the periphery. The kidney is surrounded by a renal capsule with an echogenic border
Structure: 90 percent are calcium-based contrast stones such as calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate, 70 percent combination stones, 15 to 20 percent Struvite stones
The purposes of imaging include definite diagnosis of occlusion; find principle causes including nature, size, location; evaluate the effects on the urinary system.
Urinary tract infections of the lower urinary tract are common in women and are mild because the predisposing factor is a short urethra. Urinary tract infections in men are rare and require careful consideration of the cause.
On computed tomography, it is similar to the venous urogram. When no other cause is evident, cystography should be performed to look for vesicoureteral reflux.