Guaifenesin: Babyflu expectorant, pediaflu

2021-07-04 06:53 PM

Guaifenesin has an expectorant effect by stimulating secretions in the respiratory tract, increasing the volume and reducing the viscosity of secretions in the trachea and bronchi.

International generic name: Guaifenesin.

Type of drug: Expectorant.

Drug form and strength

200 mg capsules; 300 mg extended-release capsules.

Tablets 100 mg, 200 mg; extended-release tablets 1 200 mg.

Oral solution 100mg/5ml, 200mg/5ml.

Drug preparations in combination with dyphylin, theophylline, pseudoephedrine, codeine, dextromethorphan.

Pharmacology and mechanism of activation

Guaifenesin has an expectorant effect by stimulating secretions in the respiratory tract, increasing the volume and reducing the viscosity of secretions in the trachea and bronchi. As a result, the drug increases the effectiveness of the cough reflex and makes it easier to expel sputum. This mechanism is different from that of antitussive drugs, which do not relieve cough.

The drug is indicated for the treatment of symptoms of cough with thick sputum that is difficult to expel due to colds, mild upper respiratory tract infections. The drug is often combined with bronchodilators, nasal decongestants, antihistamines, or opiate antitussives.

Pharmacokinetics

After oral administration, the drug is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. In the blood, 60% of the drug is hydrolyzed within 7 hours. The inactive metabolite is eliminated by the kidneys. After oral administration of 400 mg of guaifenesin, no intact drug was detected in the urine. The elimination half-life of guaifenesin is approximately 1 hour.

Indications

Loosen phlegm when coughing with thick sputum, sputum sputum, obstructing the respiratory tract

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to guaifenesin.

Children under 4 years old.

Cautions

Do not use guaifenesin in cases of persistent or chronic cough such as in patients who smoke, have asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema or cough with excessive phlegm.

Patients should be adequately rehydrated while taking the drug.

Do not use this medicine for more than 7 days without consulting your doctor.

Guaifenesin is considered unsafe for use in patients with porphyria-induced porphyria in laboratory animals.

Use in Children: Guaifenesin has been used in children.

However, there have been reports of poisoning and potentially fatal overdoses from over-the-counter cough and cold preparations containing expectorants (including guaifenesin) in young children. Therefore, it is not recommended to arbitrarily use guaifenesin for children under 4 years of age unless directed by a doctor.

Some combinations are not reasonable, such as combining guaifenesin with cough medicine, because the cough reflex helps expel sputum, especially in the elderly.

Pregnancy period

There are no sufficiently large controlled studies in pregnant women. Because a risk to the fetus cannot be completely ruled out, guaifenesin should be used with caution and should be used in pregnancy only when the potential benefit to the mother outweighs the risk to the fetus.

Breastfeeding period

There are no data on the use of guaifenesin in nursing women.

Caution should be exercised when administering guaifenesin to this patient population.

Adverse Effects (ADRs)

Rare or uncommon reactions: Dizziness, headache, diarrhea, vomiting or nausea, abdominal pain, skin rash, urticaria.

Kidney stones have been reported in patients abusing preparations containing guaifenesin.

Instructions on how to handle ADR

Side effects are usually mild and go away on their own. If vomiting or abdominal pain is severe, the drug should be discontinued. Avoid prolonged use of the drug. Use with caution in children under 12 years of age, especially under 2 years of age. Drink plenty of water to help loosen the thick phlegm.

Dosage and Administration

Long-acting tablets: Swallow whole, do not break, chew or crush. Take the medicine with a full glass of water.

Adults and children 12 years of age and older: 200 - 400 mg every 4 hours. If taking long-acting preparations: 600 mg or 1.2 g every 12 hours. Maximum dose: 2.4 g per day.

Children 6 to under 12 years: 100 - 200 mg every 4 hours. If taking long-acting preparations: 600 mg every 12 hours. Maximum dose: 1.2 g per day.

Children 4 to under 6 years: 50 - 100 mg every 4 hours. If taking long-acting preparations: 300 mg every 12 hours. Maximum dose: 600 mg per day.

Drug interactions

Drug-Drug Interactions: Do not use combination preparations of guaifenesin with dextromethorphan for patients taking MAO inhibitors.

A combination of guaifenesin and phenylpropanolamine should be used with caution in patients with hypertension, heart disease, diabetes or peripheral vascular disease, prostatic hypertrophy, and glaucoma.

Drug-Laboratory Interactions: The use of guaifenesin may give false-positive results in the urine vanillmandelic acid test. Guaifenesin should be stopped 48 hours before a urine sample is taken for this test.

Stability and preservation

Store the medicine at a temperature of 15 - 30 degrees Celsius, in a closed container, unless otherwise directed by the manufacturer.

Overdose and treatment

Acute symptoms: If guaifenesin is used in higher than usual therapeutic doses, it may cause nausea and vomiting.

Treatment: Gastric lavage if detected early, treat symptoms. Chronic: Abuse of preparations containing guaifenesin can cause kidney stones.

Tradenames

Babyflu Expectorant; Pediaflu.