Atlas of anatomy of the paranasal sinuses

2021-02-13 12:00 AM

The paranasal sinuses are divided into four groups; the sinuses, frontal sinuses, sinuses, these sinuses are often infected with bacteria that spread from the nasal passages and cause sinusitis.

Outline of paranasal sinuses

The paranasal sinuses are the slightly dependent sinuses of the nasal cavities, since they arise from the scent sockets and also receive air from the nasal cavities. The paranasal sinuses are divided into four groups; the sinuses, frontal sinuses, sinuses, these sinuses are often infected with bacteria that spread from the nasal passages and cause sinusitis.

Sieve cells (Sinus ethmoidalis seu labyrinthus ethmoidal) (Sinus or sieve labyrinth)

Sieve cells with numbers from 8 to 10 cells, form a niches system, located in the thickness of the two lateral masses of the sieve bone. The sieve cells are open internally into the upper and middle nasal passages, whereas externally they are completely separated from the eye sockets by the eye sockets of the sieve bone, associated devotional cells; upwards with hard meninges and brain (which can lead to complications in the meningeal and brain when inflamed), externally with the ocular sockets, backward with the butterfly sinuses, and downward with the maxillary sinuses , the anterior sieve cell is further related to the frontal sinus, which could be considered a large frontal sieve cell.

Atlas of anatomy of the paranasal sinuses

The cartilage, sinuses of the nose - seen from the inside

Sinus frontalis 

A three-sided pyramidal cavity with a base, frontal sinuses appear in childhood and have variable levels of development. The anterior wall of the sinuses is thick, and corresponds to the eyebrow region; the posterior wall of the sinus is thinner, associated with the meninges and across the meningeal layers associated with the frontal lobe of the cerebrum (the anterior pole of the cerebral hemisphere). The inner wall of the frontal sinus is the inter-sinus septum, separating the two frontal sinuses from each other. These two sinuses are always not equal in size; the lower wall is considered to be the base of the frontal sinuses and is associated with the eye sockets and sieve. The frontal sinus is connected to the middle nasal passages by the frontal-nasal canal, which has an opening into the funnel of the middle nasal passages located at the upper end of the semi-circular gap. A frontal sinus opening can be done by passing the tube through the middle nasal passages.

Butterfly sinus 

The butterfly sinuses are located on either side of the sternum, the two lateral sinuses separated from each other by a very thin wall. The related butterfly sinuses: upwards with the pituitary fossa (selia turcica), in the fossa contains the pituitary gland (also called the hypotenic gland), posterior with the sloping surface, outward with the cavernous venous sinuses, in the This venous sinus also contains the inner carotid artery, and the number III, IV, V !, and VI cranial nerves, and downward, the butterfly sinus is associated with the pharynx (pharynx). The anterior wall of the butterfly sinuses looks at the nasopharynx (also called the pharynx), and a small opening opens into this part of the pharynx, but the hole is filled with a mucous membrane, and is swept between obscure vision. Butterfly sinuses can be small, medium, or large; in the case of large sinuses, it is possible to open the niches in the thickness of the large butterfly,

Maxillary sinuses or caves of Highmor

The jaw sinus is a cavity located in the body of the maxilla; the walls of the sinuses can be just thin sheets of bone. The shape of the sinuses is similar to that of the upper jaw bone, which is a pyramid with four sides (both called the sinus wall) with one base pointing inward.

The anterior wall corresponds to the fossa and is the surgical wall, since the sinus entrance is the path through the gingival-cheek groove, the lower part of the wall is crossed by the plexus of the upper teeth. The posterior and outer wall (or the posterior-temporal wall) is associated with the fossa-palate fossa, in the thickness of this wall there is the posterior acupuncture nerve (or posterior apical nerve) entering to branch into Tooth acupuncture point. The upper wall (also called the orbital wall) is the orbital wall. On this wall there is a groove under the orbit running from the back to the front, then continuing with the suborbital tube. The fissure under the orbit forms a bony ridge that protrudes into the sinus. The inner wall of the sinuses is the base of the pyramid, corresponding to the outer wall of the medial and lower nasal passages, with a wide opening called the jaw sinus cavity (hiatus). In the medial nasal passages, the jaw sinus cavity has a hook tip that passes and is mostly filled with mucous membranes. In the lower nasal passages, the jaw sinus hole is covered by the maxilla of the lower entraining bone, but this position is the chosen point to poke the jaw sinus. The anterior margin of the maxillary sinus corresponds to the nasolabial canal. The lower margin of the sinuses is related to the roots of the first large molars and the second premolars, so the sinuses are more likely to be affected by dental diseases. Normal sinuses contain air. The shape and size of the sinuses are quite variable. Small sinuses with a volume of less than 8 cubic centimetres may be normal or as a result of a chronic bacterial infection. Large sinuses with a volume exceeding 15 cubic centimetres can open the niches: above the niche lies in the branch thickness on the maxilla, towards the outside of the cheeks, in the cheekbones below, in the lower the brim of the canopy of the palate, and back-up may also have niches located on the upper part of the palate.