Laryngeal surgery

2021-02-08 12:00 AM

The larynx is nourished by the upper larynx artery which is the branch of the upper thyroid artery and the lower larynx artery is the branch of the lower thyroid artery.

Location and relevance

The larynx is a part of the respiratory tract, tubular, connected to the pharynx, and below the trachea, responsible for sound and air conduction. The larynx is located in the neck, the anterior pharyngeal charge.

Structure

The larynx is made up of cartilage connected by joints, membranes, ligaments and muscles. There are 2 vocal cords that will vibrate and emit sound under the impact of the passing air stream.

Inside, the larynx is covered with a continuous mucosa with the pharyngeal mucosa, tracheal mucosa, and makes the sinuses sound resonant.

The laryngeal cartilage

Including thyroid cartilage, ring cartilage and glottal cartilage, funnel cartilage, keratinous cartilage, meniscus and parchment cartilage. In which the meniscus and parchment are the small cartilages.

Thyroid cartilage

The largest of the laryngeal cartilage, the thyroid cartilage acts as a shield over the front of the larynx, located above the ring cartilage and below the nail bone. Is made up of two pieces of the right and left, stick together in the midline, creating a protruding larynx protruding and a posterior opening angle, called the thyroid cartilage angle. This angle is about 1200 in women, and in men about 900, so the laryngeal convex in men is larger and clearer than in women.

Cartilage rings

Ring cartilage is ring shaped, located below the thyroid cartilage, consists of 2 parts:

Ring cartilage in front, palpable under the skin.

Ring cartilage piece wide, in the back. The upper margin is articulated, connecting with the funnel cartilage. The upper face has a joint area to match the horn below the cartilage.

The lower margin of the ring cartilage is horizontal (equal to the lower margin of the cervical vertebrae, corresponding to the junction between the pharynx and esophagus), connected to the first cartilage ring of the trachea by the ring-tracheal ligament.

Capillary cartilage

The glottic cartilage is behind the thyroid cartilage, like the lid of the larynx. Leaf-shaped, lower anterior stalk, attached to the corner of the cartilage by the ligament of the cap.

The funnel cartilage

It is a double cartilage, located on the ring cartilage piece. The pyramidal cartilage is triangular apical above the bottom below. The base is pyramid-shaped, where the anterior angle is called the sonic cone, the outer corner is the muscle tip for the muscles to grip.

Kernel cartilage

Small, has a fixed base to the top of the funnel cartilage.

Cartilage is connected by joints of ligaments and laryngeal muscles to help the larynx move.

Figure. The laryngeal cartilage

  1. Thyroid cartilage 2. Ring cartilage 3. Tracheal cartilage 4. Cap cartilage 5. Hopper cartilage 6. Ring cartilage

Muscles of the larynx

The laryngeal muscles consist of foreign and internal muscles.

Foreign muscles are muscles that attach to the nail bone or larynx when contracting can cause the larynx to move.

The intrinsic muscles are muscles that have the origin and are evenly attached in the larynx, such as the ring muscle going from the ring cartilage to the thyroid cartilage when contracting and stretching the vocal ligaments, the lateral caldera and the posterior hopper ring ...

The outward form of the larynx

The larynx has 2 sides, the front and the back.

Front

From the bottom to the top is the ring cartilage, ring ligaments - armour, the front of the cartilage.

Backside

As the anterior part of the pharynx, from the bottom up there are ring cartilage fragments, anterior laryngeal cartilage, laryngeal entry hole and posterior capillary.

Body shape

The vocal cords are relatively narrow and incompatible with the outward appearance, divided into vestibular folds and vocal folds into 3 parts:

Vestibular larynx

The vestibular larynx is the upper two vestibular folds, with a funnel-shaped appearance.

Qing Dynasty

This is the interval between the two upper vestibular folds and the two lower vocal folds. Two vocal folds should limit the glottis.

Figure. Form in the larynx

  1. Vestibular larynx 2. Larynx 3. Laryngeal cleft 4. Subglottic

Subglottic drive

Under the glottis:

Conical in shape, formed by elastic cone and ring cartilage.

Loosely organized under the mucosa, laryngeal oedema is easy to appear here.

Blood vessels and nerves

Blood vessel

The larynx is nourished by the upper larynx artery which is the branch of the upper thyroid artery and the lower larynx artery is the branch of the lower thyroid artery.

Nerve

Motor:

Ringing muscles are caused by the outer branch of the motor laryngeal nerve. When this nerve damage will not be able to speak high.

The remaining muscles of the larynx are driven by sub laryngeal nerve if paralysis will cause loss of voice.

Feeling:

The upper vocal folds are caused by the upper laryngeal nerve.

The lower vocal folds are caused by the lower laryngeal nerve.

The lower laryngeal nerve is the terminal branch of the inverted laryngeal nerve and the upper laryngeal nerve is the branch of the wandering nerve.