Osteoarthritis of the lower extremities

2021-02-08 12:00 AM

Each toe has three bones: the proximal knuckle, the middle toe and the distal knuckle. Except for finger I, which has only two bones, which are the proximal and distal knuckles



The pelvic bone is a twin, propeller-shaped bone, this lateral pelvis connects with the opposite side and the posterior pelvis wall. The pelvis is shaped like a pot tied in the middle; the waist is the upper hip. The pelvis is responsible for storing the organs in the abdomen and transferring the body weight to the lower extremities.


In terms of the embryo, the pelvis is made up of three bones joined together. The connection center is the mortar, where there are traces of Y-shaped cartilage.

Pelvic wing: above, consisting of two parts of the body and wing of the pelvis.

Pubic bone: anterior, consisting of: body and two branches are upper and lower branches.

Sitting bone: posterior, consisting of the seated body and the seated skeleton.

Anatomical features

The pelvic bone is a flat bone with 2 sides and 4 banks.

Outer surface: in the middle, there is a cup-shaped concave called the bowl to connect the femur. On the shaft is the buttock area for the gluteus muscles to grip. Under the mortar is a socket, covered with membrane, in front of the hole is a groove (tube) to allow the blood vessels and nerve to pass through.

The inside face: in the middle is the arc, running from top to bottom first; The two arches of the pelvis and the posterior protrusions form the upper pelvis. The upper pelvis divides the pelvis into two parts, the upper one is the large pot, the lower is the baby's pot. The upper pelvis is very important in obstetrics. On the archway is the pelvic fossa, behind the pelvic fossa with the coronary joint area is the atrial area to match the sacrum. Under the arc is the square area corresponding to the rear drive, under the square is the hole.

Upper margin: is the pelvic crest, where the highest point of the crest is at the level of the lumbar vertebrae 4.

Lower margin: by the sitting bone branch with the lower pubic bone formed.

Front bank: some details are as follows:

Upper anterior pelvic spine is an important anatomic landmark.

Pubic pelvis.

Pubic tubers have inguinal ligaments. The inside and bottom of the pubic root have a pubic area to match the pubic bone on the opposite side.

Rear bank: there are also many protrusions, with details:

Upper posterior spines.

Can sit big.

Gai sat.

Miss sitting small.

Seat stand: is the place to bear the full body weight when sitting.

Figure. Pelvic

  1. Pelvic joint 2. Same bone 3. Pelvic bone 4. coccyx 5. Pubic joint 6. Upper pelvis


The femur is a long bone consisting of the body and two heads.

Body and bones

The triangular prism has three faces: front, inside, and outside; three banks: inside, outside and after. The posterior bank is protruding and sharp called the seam and has many attachments.


There are thigh cusps, thigh necks, large displacement and baby displacement.

Thigh: 2/3 sphere shape, pointing upwards inwards and out front.

Thigh neck: connecting cap with two displacement tabs, tilting upwards and inwards. The shaft of the neck meets with the torso shaft at an angle of 1300 called the tilt angle, allowing the femur to move easily.

Large displacement: is the grip of the thigh rotating muscle mass, can be touched and located on the living person.

Baby transfer point: in the back and in the femur.

The lower end

The lower head has an inner spheroid convex and an outer spherical convex. The outer surface is convex of the outer bridge with the apex on the convex of the outer bridge; inner spherical protrusion with a ridge on inner protrusion and closed muscular tubers.

Figure. Femur

  1. Large displacement point 2. Upper thigh 3. Body and thigh 4. Neck joint 5. Joint line 6. Internal convex 7. Outer protrusion


It is a flat triangular bone with the base at the top below. The patella is wrapped in the quadriceps muscle tendon, so it is called the sesame bone. Play a role in leg stretching.


Is the main bone of the lower leg, bearing nearly all the weight of the body from above? The tibia is a long bone with one body and two heads.

Body and bones

The curved triangular prism is slightly convex. There are three sides and three banks:

In the three sides, there is a flat inner surface, close to the skin.

In the three banks, there are sharp anterior banks, close to the skin. The anterior margin, as well as the inner surface, are close to the skin, so when the tibial bone is broken, it can easily puncture the skin, causing an open fracture, and the bone is difficult to heal when damaged.


Flared wide to support the femur, including:

Internal convexity.

The outer convex, more convex than the inner, the lower and posterior convex, has a ligamentous area to connect the head on the fibula.

The top surface of each spheroid convex has a corresponding upper joint to the femoral convex joint.

The front of the two tuber protrusions located just below the skin is the convex tibial plateau, where the patella ligament hangs.

The lower end

Smaller than the top, including:

Inner ankle: formed by the lower inner part of the head, which can be touched under the skin.

The lower joint area: the upper joint of the chain pulley.

Defect: on the outside, the head is under the fibula.

Figure. Tibia

  1. From the front B. From the outside C. From the back
  2. Convex tibial plateau 2. Inner face 3. Inner ankle 4. Upper head 5. Body and bone 6. Lower head 7. Rear view


The fibula is the long, thin bone outside the tibia.

Body and bones

The skeleton has three faces and three banks.


Also called the capillary, next to the joint of the tibial plateau, can be touched under the skin.

The lower end

Flattened and more pointed than the upper head, forming outer ankle, the lower extreme of outer ankle lower than the lower end of the inner ankle. The head below the fibula and the lower tibial plateau make up the fibula, which plays a very important role in walking.

Foot bones

The foot bones include the tarsus bones, the foot bones, the toe bones.

The ankle bones

Includes 7 bones arranged in two rows:

Back row: has two bones, a slug bone and a heel bone.

Front row: There are 5 bones of the boat, box and three bones.

Foot bones

There are 5 table bones, from the inside out, are the table bones I, ... Burn the table V. Each bone has the base, body and top.

The toe knuckles

Each toe has three bones: the proximal knuckle, the middle toe and the distal knuckle. Except for finger I, which has only two bones, which are the proximal and distal knuckles. Each bone also has three parts: the base of the knuckles, the knuckles and the knuckles.

Figure. The ankle bones

  1. Slug bone 2. Boat bone 3. Chock bone II 4. Wedge bone I 5. Table bone 6. Chock bone III 7. Box bone 8. Heel bone

Hip joints

The hip joint is the largest synovial joint in the body.


Mortar drive.

Femur cusp, matching with the bowl.

Mortar rim cartilage

Figure. Hip joints

  1. Thigh straight muscles 2. Reversal muscles of thigh straight muscles 3. Joint cover 4. Missile buttocks 5. Synovial sac 6. Square thigh muscle 7. Ligament of thigh 8. Ligament of thigh 9. Ligament pot

Means of coupling

Joint envelope: is a strong fibre bag.

Ligaments: There are two types:

The outer ligament covers the joint; due to thickened joints that have:

Pelvic ligaments: at the front and above the sheath, wide and long, the strongest ligament of the hip joint. This ligament is very strong and covers most of the front, so when a joint is dislocated due to injury, it often dislocates the joint back.

Ligaments of the thighs

The pubic ligament together with the pelvic ligament form three Z-shaped fibres.

Ligament sitting thigh: at the back of the joint.

Ligaments around the thighs.

Ligaments in the sheath of joints:

It is the femur ligament that goes from the cusp of the thigh to the kibble.

Synovial fluid

The inner lining of joints.


The amplitude of the hip joint is very large: folded, stretched, closed, form ...