Osteoarthritis of the upper extremities

2021-02-08 12:00 AM

The shoulder bone is a flattened, triangular, bipedal, flattened bone located behind the upper part of the thorax. The bone has two faces, three banks, and three angles.


The clavicle is a long bone, forming the anterior part of the shoulder belt, located across the front and upper ribs. The bone consists of 1 body and 2 heads.

Body and bones

Image. Clavicle A. Upper Face B. Lower Face

1.Sternum 2. Body and bone 3. Head and shoulder 4. Thymus area 5. Lower collar groove 6. Head and shoulder

The body is curved S-shaped, arched outward and concave backward in the inner part, the weak point of the body is at the junction between the outer 1/3 and the inner 2/3, which is often broken during trauma.


Thymus: inward, has a thymus joint with the sternum.

Head with the shoulder: Outward, flattened and broad, with a shoulder joint that matches the tip of the shoulder.


The shoulder bone is a flattened, triangular, bipedal, flat bone located behind the upper part of the chest. The bone has two faces, three edges, and three angles.

Image: Shoulder bone (front)

1.crows 2. Shoulder spines 3. Neck and shoulder 4. Holes under shoulder


Ribs: concave is the hole under the shoulder.

Dorsal surface: shoulder spine divides this face into two unequal parts: the small upper part is called the hole above the spine; the large lower part is the inferior hole.

The shoulder spine is a triangular piece of bone that goes up and out and is palpable under the skin. Outward flat shoulder spines form the same shoulder.


There are three edges, the inner edges, the outer edges, and the upper edge. Outside on the upper shore is the crow's-head, a palpable bone on a living person.

The corners

Upper corner: slightly square, connecting the upper shore and the inner shore.

Lower angle: slightly rounded, connecting the inner and outer banks. In the anatomical position, the lower angle is horizontal to the level of the thoracic vertebra VII.

Outer angle: has an oval joint, slightly concave called a pan. The pans are attached to the body of the bone by a constriction called the shoulder blade.


The arm bone is a long bone with a body and two heads.

Body and bones

The triangular prism has three faces and three banks.

Front outside: In the middle 1/3 there is a rugged V-shaped area called delta tuber convex.

Front inside: flat and smooth.

Back: There is a groove running from top to bottom out called a rotating nerve groove, going in a groove with a rotating nerve and deep arm artery. Therefore, when the middle third of the arm bone is broken, the rotating nerve is susceptible to damage.

Bands: The brachial body has three banks, the anterior margin, the inner margin, and the outer margin.


The top includes:

The arm bone cusp is 1/3 of a sphere facing inwards, upwards, and backward.

The anatomical neck is a slightly tightened place, close to the cap of the bone. The neck fits the body of the skeleton at an angle of about 1300.

Big tubers and small bulbs. Between the two bulbs is the root groove.

The head-on the arm bone is attached to the body of the bone by a constriction called the surgical neck, where the fracture is common.

Lower end:

Flat, including convex bridge, the crown on inner convex, and ridge on the outer bridge. Convex consists of a rotational cusp and pulley.

Image. Radius

1.Body and bone 2. Large bulb 3. Arm cap 4. Rotating nerve groove 5. Top tip on inner protrusion 6. Centrum 7. Pulley

Forearm bone

Consisting of two bones that are the outer rotational bone and the inner cylindrical bone, the two bones are connected by the interstellar membrane and the two upper and lower rotational joints.

Rotation of the bone

Bones have one body and two heads.

Body bone: 3 sides and 3 edges.

The front starts from the convex of the bulb, and the bottom is wider. The back is slightly concave. Convex exterior.

The edges: front edge, back edge, inner edge. The inner edge is also called the interstellar edge, the sharp edge has a membrane that clings to space.

Image. Forearm bone

1.Elbow tip 2. Parrot-tip 3. Rotating cusp 4. Spindle neck 5. Intercostal membrane 6. Rotating brooch 7. Pillar of crown


Consisting of rotating tops of bones, necks of bones, and rotting tubers.

Rotating cusp: has a concave face pointing upwards, matching the cusp of the forearm, a sphincter joint with the rotational defect of the cylindrical bone, and a rotating ligament.

The spindle neck is a constriction located below the rotating cap

The radial convex is located below, between the upper head and the body of the bone.

Lower end:

Larger than the top. On the outside of the head under the rotating bone, there is a bone protruding below the skin that can be touched under the skin.


Pillars are long bones with a body and 2 heads.

Body bone: 3 sides and 3 edges.

The sides are the front, back, and inside.

The margins are the front edges, the posterior edges are palpable under the skin, and the outer edges are the pavements.


Including crankshaft, parrot, pulley defect, and rotation.

Lower end:

Convex into a cusp is called a cylindrical cusp. The inside of the cusp has a cylindrical crown.

The wrist bones

Image. Bones of the hands

1.Wrist bone 2. Hand knuckle 3. Fingerbone near forefinger 4. Middle finger knuckles 5. Fingerbone far away index finger

Carpal tunnel consists of 8 bones, in the upper row from the outside to the inside, there are 4 bones: boat bone, moon bone, pyramid bone, and bean bone; in the lower row from the outside to the inside, there are four bones: trapezoid, spine, and bone

hook. The wrist bones rearrange into a groove in the anterior wrist groove. The carpal groove fits into the membrane that holds the tendons folded into the carpal tunnel for the folding tendons, blood vessels, and nerves to pass.

The knuckles

Matching the upper wrist bones and lower finger bones, there are 5 bones called I to V sequential numbers.

Finger bones

 Each finger has 3 bones: the proximal bone, the middle finger bone, and the distal knuckle in the order going from the knuckle down, except for the thumb, there are only 2 bones.


The shoulder joint is a dynamic joint, connecting the pan to the arm bone.

Image. Shoulder

1.Big bulb 2. Pans 3. Cover joints 4. Ligaments


Arm bone cap: 1/3 shape sphere covered with cartilage.

A pan is a shallow hollow shape.

Cartilage: because the pan is small compared to the upper arm, there is rib cartilage is a rim of cartilage sticking around the pan to increase the depth of the pan.

Means of coupling

Cover joints.

Ligaments: includes the crow-arm ligament and the pear-arm ligament.

Synovial fluid

The inner lining contains synovial fluid to facilitate joint movement.


The shoulder joint has the largest amplitude of action in the body, the amplitude of the movements is very large: form, close, forward, backward, rotate ...