Overview of osteoarthritis

2021-02-08 12:00 AM

Single bones are bones that each have one bone and these bones are on the body's axis, the right and left two bones are symmetrical across its axis as well as the body's axis.

The skeletal system creates a framework for the body that is responsible for supporting, moving, and protecting. In addition, the skeletal system also functions to create blood cells, store fat, and mineral salts such as calcium and phosphorus.

General views on bones

Amount

The human skeleton consists of 206 bones as follows:

Head and face bones: 22 bones.

Foundation bone: 1.

Backbone: 26.

Sternum: 1.

Ribs: 24.

Upper limb bone: 64.

Lower extremities: 62.

The bones of the ears: 6.

There are also some sesame bones and extra bones located in the muscle tendons and a number of other locations.

Classification of bones

Depending on the classification that people divide bones into categories:

According to the quantity:

Twin bones, single bones.

Double bones are bones in which each person has two bones, two bones symmetrical across the body's axis.

Single bones are bones that each have one bone and these bones are on the body's axis, the right and left two bones are symmetrical across its axis as well as the body's axis.

According to the shape:

Long bones (femur ...), short bones (wrists, ankles), flattened bones (shoulder blades), amorphous bones (butterfly bones ...).

Bone growth

There are 2 different evolutionary processes:

Periosteal ossification: occurs in the flattened bones of the skull and facial bones. Initially the bone is the connective membrane. Then in the center of this connective membrane appear ossification centers, and bone formation begins. Periosteal ossification, or direct ossification, occurs during the embryonic period.

Cartilage ossification: is the ossification of all long bones, vertebral body, and part of the skull base. These bones are first a sample of cartilage. Each long bone develops from different cartilage chemical points. Usually, there is one primary point in the bone body, two secondary points at the top of the bone, and many appendages.

Figure. The inner cartilage consolidation

Overview of joints

A joint is a joint of two or more surfaces that fit together: a joint can be a bone head, a ligament (a rotating ligament joint), or a joint disc.

Classify

Based on the degree of movement divided joints into 3 types:

Immovable joints: joints between the bones of the skull arch.

Semi-dynamic joint: pubic joint, the joint between vertebral body.

Dynamic joints, also known as synovial joints: shoulder joints ...

The structure of the dynamic joint

A dynamic joint is usually made up of the following components:

Figure. Synovial synapse

1. Cartilage and joints 2. Synovial joint 3. Synovial fluid 4. Holster

Joint surface: covered with joint cartilage.

Means of articulation: sheaths and ligaments.

Joints: limited by the joints and bursa, with synovial fluid lining the inside surface of the joint sac. The synovial fluid contains synovial fluid. Therefore, the dynamic joint is also known as a synovial joint.