Peritoneal surgery

2021-02-12 12:00 AM

The peritoneum covers all the organs in the abdominal cavity and the pelvic fossa, lining the inside of the abdominal wall, the lower surface of the diaphragm, and the upper surface of the pelvic diaphragm.

General perception

The peritoneum is the largest serosa in the body. The peritoneum covers all the organs in the abdominal cavity and the pelvic fossa, lining the inside of the abdominal wall, the lower surface of the diaphragm, and the upper surface of the pelvic diaphragm. The peritoneum consists of two leaves, the peritoneum lining the inside of the abdominal wall, the pelvic wall and the peritoneum covering the organs and becoming the serosa of these organs. The space between the visceral peritoneum and the parietal peritoneum is called the peritoneum, containing a little fluid in order to reduce the contact between the organs.

Images of the peritoneum

The peritoneum is difficult to imagine, due to its complicated morphology, so there must be images that students can imagine.

If we see the abdomen like a balloon. We put in the balls of organs in the abdomen, and then we put the ball in and pump it up. The balloon will cover the organs and line the inside of the abdominal wall. The ballooning intestine is now considered the peritoneum.

Some concepts and structures

Some concepts

The abdominal cavity: is the closed space surrounded by the abdominal wall, the upper diaphragm is the diaphragm, the bottom is the perineum. In the abdomen contains organs and peritoneum.

The peritoneum is the space located in the visceral peritoneum and peritoneum. In the normal case, the two peritoneum leaves close together, the peritoneal cavity is then a virtual cavity. In the case of pathology, with fluid, blood, and gas accumulating, we have a real peritoneal drive. The peritoneal cavity is a closed space in men, while in women the peritoneum is connected to the uterine tube.

The organs contained in the abdominal cavity are classified as follows:

The organ in the peritoneum is the oviduct, which is not completely covered by the peritoneum.

The peritoneum is the organ that is covered almost entirely by the peritoneum. For example, stomach, liver, spleen ....

The extra peritoneal organs are organs located in the posterior abdominal wall such as the kidneys, or in the pelvis such as the bladder and uterus.

Organ is turned into an embryonic origin organ located in the peritoneum, but during the development process becomes extra peritoneal such as duodenum, pancreas, colon up. colon down.

Structures of the peritoneum

As discussed above about the visceral peritoneum and peritoneum, there are still some intermediate structures, which are not within the definition of the above two peritoneum leaves. Through these structures, blood vessels, nerves, and vessels enter the organs in the peritoneum.

The suspension is two peritoneal leaves that hang the digestive tract into the abdominal wall, between the leaves are blood vessels to the small intestine, lymphatic vessels and nerves.

Ligaments are two peritoneal folds that go to the peritoneum to the visceral peritoneum of the organ not part of the digestive tract, for example: sickle ligament, coronary ligament.

The conjunctiva consists of two peritoneum leaves connecting the organs together: the small junction, the large junction.

Structure and function of the peritoneum


The peritoneum is composed of two layers:

The peritoneum surface is made up of a squamous layer of epidermal cells called the serosa, the cell layer that makes the peritoneum smooth and shiny. On the other hand, this epidermis also secretes fluid that wetting the peritoneum. When the epithelium is damaged by trauma or inflammation of the peritoneum, the organs become sticky and interfere with the function, especially in the small intestine.

Subarctic layer of fibrous connective tissue, has high elasticity. Thanks to this layer, the peritoneum is firmly protected by organs.

The size of the peritoneum is quite large, but it is located in the abdomen but has many folds. An area equal to the area of ​​the body skin.


The peritoneum has the following functions:

Wrapping organs, protecting and firmly the structure of organs

Help the intestines move easily in the abdomen, thanks to a little fluid in the peritoneum.

Resistance to infection. The sheath acts as an isolator around the nematodes.

Absorbs quickly thanks to its wide surface, approximately equal to the skin area of ​​the body.

Storing fat, because fat is located between the junctions.

Figure. Set of clothes standing across the abdomen

1. Stomach 2. Large connective tissue 3. Peritoneum drives 4. Liver 5. Small jigger 6. Pancreas 7. Hymenophore connecting 8. Transverse colon

Abdominal subdivision

The peritoneal folds divide the abdominal cavity into sections.

The connective membranes rotate in the peritoneal cavity to form the conjunctival sac.

The transverse conjunctival macula divides the peritoneum into two layers: the upper layer of the horizontal mesenteric membrane and the lower layer of the horizontal colon.

The upper layer of the horizontal colon mesenteric

There is liver, stomach, spleen, duodenum, and pancreas. The liver sickle ligament is divided into two cells called the lower right cell and the lower-left cell. The right lower diaphragm cell or the right liver cell goes down through the left colon groove. The cell is below the left diaphragm or the left liver cell, which is connected to the stomach or spleen cell.

The lower layer of the mesenteric conjunctiva

Mainly with jejunum and ileum. The small intestine suspension runs from left to right from top to bottom and divides the lower floor into two cells: right and left.