Pulmonary and pleural anatomy

2021-02-08 12:00 AM

Slit ribs starting at the level of the posterior 3-ribs running down to the bottom of the lungs, dividing the lungs into lung lobes.

The lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system, which exchange gases between the body and the environment; has elastic, porous and soft properties. Lungs are located in the chest.

Outward appearance

Lungs are semi-conical shape, suspended in the pleural cavity by the bronchus and pulmonary ligaments; has three faces, one vertex and two banks; bulging outer face against chest wall; the inner surface is the bilateral limit of the mediastinum; the lower surface, also called the base of the lung, is pressed against the diaphragm.

Figure. The outer shape of the lungs

  1. Trachea 2. Main bronchus 3. Basal of lung 4. Slight cleft 5. Transverse cleft


Located close to the diaphragm and across the diaphragm dome associated with the organs of the abdominal cavity, especially with the liver.

The peak of the lungs

Protruding from the ribs I. Behind, the top of the lung is at the level of the head behind the I rib, and the front is about 3 cm above the inside of the collarbone.


Common features of the lungs: close to the inside chest, with the mark of the ribs. Slit ribs starting at the level of the posterior 3-ribs running down to the bottom of the lungs, dividing the lungs into lung lobes. The surface of the pulmonary lobes pressed together is called the interstellar surface. On the lung surface, there are different large and small polygons; it is the base of the pulmonary lobules - the basic unit of the lung.

The specific characteristics of each lung: the lung must have an additional transverse slot, going from the slit, levelling the quadrant space running across the front, so the right lung has three lobes, which are the upper, middle and lower lobes. The left lung has only slit, so the left lung has only two lobes, the upper and lower lobe. In the anterior lower lobe of the upper lobe, there is a protruding lung pattern called the tongue of the left lung, corresponding to the middle lobe of the right lung.

Inside side

Slightly concave, consisting of two parts:

Figure. The inside of the lung

  1. Lungs 2. Triangular ligament

The back part that is related to the spine is called the spine.

The anterior part gathered the organs in the mediastinum, called the mediastinum. In the right lung, there is a depression called a cardiotomy; And the left lung, the heart is pressed deeply so it is called the pit of the heart.

Between the inner sides of the lungs, there is a racquet hilum with the handle of the racquet facing downwards. In the hilum, there are components of the bronchus passing through such as the main bronchus, the pulmonary artery, the two pulmonary veins, the bronchial artery and vein, the nerves and the lymph nodes.

Behind the hilum, there is a single vein groove and pressing the oesophagus (in the right lung) and the aortic groove (in the left lung).

Above the hilum, there is a groove of the subarachnoid artery and the groove of the first arm vein.

The banks

Front bank: created by the side and diaphragm surface, located near the middle line.

Lower bank: consists of two segments, the curved section created by the ribs and diaphragm surface, spleen deeply into the diaphragm of the diaphragm; the segment created by the mediastinal and diaphragmatic surfaces is inward.

Structure or body in

The lungs are composed of components passing through the hilum, which gradually divide in the lungs. They are a bronchial tree, pulmonary artery and veins, bronchial arteries and veins, lymphatic vessels, nerve fibres and connective tissues.

Division of the bronchial tree

The main bronchus enters the hilum and divides into the lobe bronchi. Each lobe bronchus conducts air for one lobe of the lung and is divided into segmental bronchi, which conducts air for one segment of the lung. The segmental bronchus divides the lower segmental bronchi and divides again and again until the segmental bronchus, which conducts air for a pulmonary lobule.

The division of the pulmonary artery:

Pulmonary artery stem: Starting from the pulmonary artery hole of the right ventricle, up, to the left, and back. When reaching the posterior margin of the aorta, it is divided into the right pulmonary artery and the left pulmonary artery.

The right pulmonary artery: going across to the right, entering the right lung in front of the main bronchus, then outward and finally behind the bronchi.

The left pulmonary artery: shorter and smaller than the right pulmonary artery, going up to left, crossing the front of the left main bronchus, entering the hilum above the left upper lobe bronchus.

Division of pulmonary veins

The alveolar-capillary mesh system empties into the peri-lobule vein, then continues into larger trunks until the interstitial or intravenous veins, the lobe veins, and eventually converges into two pulmonary vessels on each side of the lung, carrying oxygen-rich blood to the left atrium. The pulmonary venous system has no valves.

Arteries and bronchial veins

As the nutritional component of the lungs.

The small bronchial artery is the lateral branch of the aorta. There is usually one artery on the right side and two on the left side.

The bronchial veins pour into a single vein, a few small branches into the pulmonary veins.


Consists of many lymphatic vessels running in the lung parenchyma, pouring into the pulmonary lymph nodes, eventually into the upper and lower tracheal nodes at the split-site of the trachea.


Nerves to the lungs include:

The sympathetic nervous system comes from the plexus.

The parasympathetic system branches of the nerve wandering.


It is a serosa consisting of two leaves: the parietal pleura and the visceral pleura. Between the leaves is the pleural cavity, the right and left sides are separate.

Figure. Pleura

  1. Transverse cleft 2. Medial rib niche 3. Cavity 4. Diaphragm of diaphragmatic side 5. Top of lung 6. Thymus

Visceral pleura

Covers the entire surface and adheres tightly to the lung parenchyma, spleen in the interstitial fissures. In the hilum, the visceral pleura collapses to connect with the parietal pleura.

The parietal pleura

The lining of the chest in the chest and makes up the pleural sac, which includes:

Mediastinal pleura: is the lateral limit of the mediastinum, close to the mediastinal part of the visceral pleura.

Pleural: close to the inside of the chest, separated from the chest wall by a thin layer of connective tissue called the endothelium.

Diaphragmatic pleura: covers the top of the diaphragm. The endothelium here is called the pleural lining.

The pleural apex is the parietal pleural part corresponding to the top of the lung.

Pleural septum: is made up of two parts of the parietal pleura. There are two main pleural niches:

Diaphragm ribs diaphragm: due to the pleura meets the diaphragm pleura.

Median rib septum: due to the rib pleura meets the mediastinal pleura.

Pleural drive

In the pleura have properties:

A virtual space located between the parietal pleura and visceral pleura.

Each lung has a separate, discrete pleural socket.