Upper limb muscle surgery

2021-02-09 12:00 AM

The axillary outer wall consists of the upper arm biceps, the biceps, and the delta muscles (the biceps of the arm as described in the parachute).

Includes armpit muscles, arm muscles, forearm muscles, and hand muscles.

Muscles of the armpit region

The armpit muscles form the axillary fossa containing the blood vessels, nerves, and lymph. The armpit is a pyramid of 4 walls, a top, and a base


Armpit muscles

Figure. Armpit muscles

  1. The big chest muscle 2. Lower club muscle 3. The baby chest muscle 4. Armpit hole 5. Anterior tooth muscle


The axillary outer wall consists of the upper arm biceps, the biceps, and the delta muscles (the biceps of the arm as described in the parachute). The delta muscle is shaped like a delta letter, covering the outer surface of the upper arm bone, separated from the large pectoral muscle by the chest delta groove. It forms an area at the shoulder called the delta region.

Anterior wall

The anterior wall of the axillary fossa is the chest area consisting of four muscles arranged in two layers:

The shallow layer has large pectoral muscles wrapped in the thoracic mucosa.

The deep layer has muscles under the blow, chest muscles, crow's arm muscles. These muscles are encased in the thoracic fascia.

Inner wall

The inner wall of the axillary fossa consists of four ribs and the first and upper rib muscles of the anterior tooth muscle.

The posterior wall is the shoulder region consisting of five muscles

Muscles on spines, inferior muscles, small round muscles, large round muscles, and muscles below shoulders. There is also a long head triceps muscle running into the arm area and the back muscle extending from the back to.

The dominant nerve for the upper muscles arises mainly from the brachial plexus. The function of these muscles is to move the shoulder joint.

Muscle tendon band

The shoulder sheath is thin and has little mechanical strength. When the muscles under the shoulder, the muscle on the spine, the muscles below the spine, and the round muscle come to an end, they stick together and stick to the joint, thus forming a tendon band and providing great strength to the joint. shoulder.

The muscles of this band help hold the brachial apex in place and are an important attachment factor in many movements of the shoulder joint.

The arm muscles

The forearm muscles are divided into two areas: the forearm area and the posterior area.

Arm muscles

Figure. Arm muscles

  1. Biceps of the forearm 2. Lower shoulder muscles 3. Delta muscles 4. Certus muscle 5. Triceps muscle 6. Rotor muscle

The muscles in the forearms

Consists of three muscles arranged in two layers: biceps, biceps, and arm muscles, all 3 muscles controlled by the dermal muscle. Has the main effect of folding the forearm

Back arm muscles

Is the triceps muscle. The muscle consists of three proximal heads at the shoulder blade and the back of the arm bone, which are attached to the elbow. The muscles that are driven by the rotational nerves are responsible for stretching the forearms.


The elbow that connects the forearm to the forearm consists of areas above and below the three-finger fold. The front is the front elbow, the rear is the hock, and the center is the elbow joint. In the elbow region, three muscles make up the crank:

Muscle math on the convex.

Muscle math on outer convex.

The medial muscle math: includes the lower arm muscles and the biceps.

The three muscles that make up two grooves: the outer binomial groove and the inner binomial groove are separated by the biceps. The two grooves meet at the bottom forming a V-shape. There are nerve vessels that travel in these channels.

The forearm muscles

The forearm is limited from the horizontal line below the three-finger elbow fold to the farthest fold at the wrist. The forearm is divided into two areas: the forearm area and the posterior forearm area, separated by the spinal bone, the cylindrical bone, and the intercostal membrane.

Forearm muscles (left arm)

Figure. Forearm muscles (left arm)

  1. Look ahead B. Lookback
  2. The elbow muscle 2. The arm muscle 3. The crank arm 4. Reclining muscle 5. The crank wrist muscle 6. The elbow muscle 7. The wrist muscle 8. The muscles of the joint of the fingers

Forearm area

The forearm muscles consist of 8 muscles that act as finger-fold and hand-fold movements. Mostly by the median nerve controls movement, except for the cylindrical carpal fold muscle and the two inner bundles of the deep knuckle muscle dominated by the cylindrical nerve. The forearm muscles are arranged in three layers:

The shallow layer: the muscles of the wrist and the arm, the palmar muscle of the long arm, the muscles of the wrist and the crank, the muscles of the wrist, round.

Middle layer: muscle folds of shallow fingers.

Deep layer: muscles of deep folds, muscles of the thumb are long, muscles of the stomach square.

Back forearm area

The muscles of the posterior forearm are arranged in 2 layers:

Shallow class: includes two groups:

External group: crank arm muscles, long crank wrist extensor, short crank wrist extender.

The following groups: finger stretchers, little finger stretchers, wrist extensors, elbow muscles.

Deep layer: elongated thumb, short thumb stretcher, long thumb stretcher, index finger stretcher, supine muscle.

The nerve that governs the muscles of the hind arm is the rotating nerve, the task is to stretch the fingers and hand.

Muscle in hand

The hand is limited from the farthest wrist fold to the tips of the fingers, divided into two parts: the palms and the backs of the hands.

The palms include the muscles of the female, the muscles of the little tissue, the muscles of the back of the hand, the palms of the hands, and the muscles of the worms. These muscles are driven by the median nerve and the abutment.