Lecture ear, nose and throat

Pathogenesis of anomalous anomalies, Pathology of abnormal airways, Pathology of vestibular and deaf (pathology of the inner ear), Pathology of laryngeal dyspnea, Pathology of nasal polyps, Pathology of the outer ear.

Vestibular pathology and deafness (inner ear pathology)

For the Ear, Nose Throat physician, deafness means a little or a lot of hearing loss: hearing loss, even a little, requires an ear exam and a hearing test because sometimes a serious illness like the VIII nerve tumour begins.

Drug-induced rhinitis

These drugs cause constant vasoconstriction, affecting the submucosal vessels, affecting the hair cells (strongly degenerated, no replacement cells).

Dental cyst pathology

Invasive tumours in the jaw sinus can expand the jaw sinus in all directions, especially the image of a complete tooth or a brief clinging to a bone wall of the cyst.

Pathology of laryngeal trauma (laryngeal injury)

Management of laryngeal trauma (laryngeal injury) is complex, prolonged, and prone to recurrence. Especially difficult when accompanied by tracheal trauma.

Pathology of tracheal trauma

Endoscopy is necessary to determine the location and nature of the injury, but extreme caution may be required as it can aggravate trauma and cause severe breathing difficulty.

Pathology of benign laryngeal tumours (polyps, fibroids, papilloma)

Polyps have stalks on the free margin or vocal cords. When the patient breathes, the glottis opens, the polyps may fall down below the vocal cords, difficult to detect when examined.

Pathology of chronic laryngitis

Overgrowth of laryngitis, which is called elephant skin thickening, has an overgrowth of the epithelium and sub-mucosal lining, hair-forming cylindrical cells that transform into slices.

Pathology of trauma to the throat

Subcutaneous airflow: usually clear and rapidly increases with coughing, swallowing, or speaking the emphysema can spread to the face, chest, front spine down to the mediastinum.

Respiratory foreign objects pathology

During anesthesia, dentures fall into the airways, VA fragments during curettage, when taking a foreign object from the nose, fall into the throat and fall into the airway.

Pathology of a foreign object in eating way

Because the oesophagus contracts abnormally: there are abnormal tumours inside or outside the oesophagus that narrow the oesophagus, food will become stuck in the narrow segment.

Pathology of laryngeal cancer

The vast majority of laryngeal cancers are carcinomas, while very rare, connective cancer (sarcoma) accounts for only about 0.5%.

Pathology of lower throat cancer

Type of lymphoma Malpighi carcinoma: This type is very rare, visible to the naked eye like a strawberry, thus very similar to an adenocarcinoma.

Cancer pathologist tonsils oral

Usually, due to superinfection, the colour of the lesion is dirty grey or necrotic.

Pathology of nasopharyngeal cancer

The upper surface is the lower margin of the mantle and the base of the occipital bone. On this side, lymphatic organization is concentrated in clusters called Luschka tonsils

Pathology of laryngeal dyspnea

Throat examination: white pseudomembranous, white-grey pseudomembranous, easily bleeding difficult, insoluble in water, and it is best to find diphtheria bacteria.

Pathology of laryngeal papilloma

In children: direct laryngoscopy reveals a pink or dark strawberry-like mass, scattered on the vocal cords, laryngeal, vocal cord, funnel cartilage.

Pathology of acute laryngitis

Often the cold season is often severe inflammation, the lesions can be from the nose to the larynx, more men than women because of the arising conditions such as smoking, drinking alcohol, working in a dusty place, cold wind.

Inflammatory pathology of VA

Children with nasal congestion, babies with completely stuffy nose have to breathe through their mouth, fast breathing, irregular rhythm, stop eating, stop feeding

Pathology of tonsillitis

Feeling dry, burning, hot in the throat, especially the side of the throat where the tonsils are, a few hours later, it turns into a sore throat, aching pain in the ears, increasing pain when swallowing, coughing.

Pathology of chronic pharyngitis

Feel dry, burning in the throat or have an itchy, sore throat, especially when waking up, trying to cough up phlegm

Pathology of inflammation around the tonsils

The purulent inflammation around the tonsils can rupture on their own, drain pus into the throat and leave hard, cramping scars. Pus can also pass through the throat wall into the anterior chamber or under the jaw, causing inflammation around the throat.

Pathology of acute pharyngitis

Nonspecific pharyngitis can be localized: inflammation around the tonsils, acute tonsillitis, acute or diffuse VA, such as red pharyngitis, common white plaque pharyngitis

Method of examination of the larynx throat

Throat examination without tools: ask the patient to open their mouth, stick out their tongue and moan ..., the tongue will pull up and the tonsils will appear in a normal position

Ear exam method

Use your thumb to press on classic points such as cymbals, cymbals, cymbals, ear caps to find pain points. Notice the grimace when you press the sick ear.

Pathology of acute otitis media

Examination of the eardrum: the whole eardrum is red, the hammock is not seen, the hammock and the light cone.