Anatomy and physiology of the larynx

2021-01-31 12:00 AM

The larynx is the organ of speech and breathing, located in front of the pharynx, from the vertebrae C3 to the C6, connecting the pharynx to the trachea so it is open above the pharynx, and below the trachea.

Throat surgery

Structure of the throat

The throat is a muscular tube and membrane in front of the cervical spine. Going from the apex to the fourth cervical vertebra, which is the intersection of the food and airways, connects the nose at the top, the mouth in front with the larynx and oesophagus below. Like a flared top funnel, the lower part is narrow. The pharyngeal wall is structured by the isosceles layer, the muscle, the mucosa.

Throat divided into 3 parts:

Throat (pharynx): at the highest level, behind the pharynx, behind the two posterior nostrils. On the roof, there are arch tonsils. The two side walls have Eustachy tap speakers to the eardrum and Rosenmuler pit.

Throat (oropharynx): connected to the nasopharynx above, the throat below the larynx, the front to the oral cavity and separated by the pharynx. The posterior wall of the mouth is contiguous with the posterior wall of the nasopharynx and consists of the mucous membranes, scales, and throat muscles.

Two sidebars with pharyngeal tonsils or female tonsils are located in the tonsils.

Throat larynx (pharynx): going from the level of the nail bone down to the mouth of the oesophagus, shaped like a funnel, the mouth opens wide open to the throat, the bottom of the funnel is the mouth of the oesophagus in the lower throat.

The posterior wall is consecutive with the posterior wall of the mouth. The anterior wall above is the base of the tongue, the lower is the laryngeal cartilage and the two funnel cartilages of the larynx.

The lateral wall looks like a narrow trough from top to bottom. The funnel-laryngeal fold of the larynx with the sidewall of the pharynx forms the pharyngeal-larynx or sinus.

Round waldeyer

The throat has lymphocytes that form a ring called the Waldeyer ring.

Include:

The female oral tonsils: is the largest lymphoid organization consisting of two blocks in the two sidebars of the throat and located in the tonsils. This cavity has a sheath separating from the lateral organization, the front has the anterior cylinder, the rear is covered by the posterior cylinder, only the inside and bottom faces are directly visible, called the free face of the tonsils. This free side has ingestion slits deep into the tonsils and is covered by the epidermis. It is these cavities that take place the immune activity of the tonsils. 

Tongue tonsils: Lymphocytes located at the base of the posterior tongue, usually with 5 to 9 clusters of lymphoid tissue. The laryngeal tonsil is closely related to the pharyngeal tonsil.

Arched tonsils (Luschka): is a lymphatic organization located on the roof of the nasopharynx, right behind the posterior nose, has no shell like the palate tonsil, the free face usually has 5 longitudinal grooves. Due to the location of the arch tonsil, it is often the cause of ear, nose, and throat infections.

Tapioles (Gerlach): Small lymphocytes located in the Rosenmuler fossa around the Eustachi orifice.

Histology of the tonsils: the same structure as the lymph nodes.

The function is to generate antibodies to protect the body.

The space around the throat

Around the pharynx, there are cavities containing the weight organs, muscles, blood vessels, nerves, lymph nodes and these are closely related to the pharynx.

Sébileau: the pharyngeal, pharyngeal, tongue, nail and brooch-nail ligaments, and the brooch, the jaw are made into a strip or bundle: the Roland bouquet divides this cavity into two parts:

Space before brooch or anterior under the ear.

The space behind the brooch or behind the ear.

Post-pharyngeal cavity (Henké): between the balance of the pharynx and the muscles of the anterior spine. The large lymph node in the cavity is the Gillette ganglion, which is only present in children, and it shrinks at the age of 5 years. Henké cavity extends from the throat-mouth down to the pharynx-larynx.

Blood vessel

The nourishing circuit belongs to the external carotid artery: the pharyngeal artery, the upper thyroid artery, the palate artery.

Nerve

Sensory nerve belongs to the IX and X strings. The IX wire dominates the tongue base and the lower one-third of the tonsils. The X-string governs the posterior wall of the throat and the pharynx.

A motor neuron is mainly caused by the inner branch of the IX and XI strings.

Lymphatic

Fill in posterior pharyngeal, Gillette, subgranular and carotid lymph nodes.

Physiology of the throat

The throat is the intersection of the food and airways. Should keep the following functions:

Swallowing function: after food has been chewed, mouth kneading is pushed into the throat to perform the swallowing process: bringing food down the oesophagus mouth.

Breathing function.

Pronunciation function.

Listening function.

Taste function.

Body protection function.

Laryngeal surgery

The larynx is the organ of speech and breathing, located in front of the pharynx, from the vertebrae C3 to the C6, connecting the pharynx to the trachea so it is open above the pharynx, below the trachea.

The larynx moves just below the skin in the neck area before swallowing or when bent or raised. It develops with the development of the genital system, so as adults, the voice also changes (rupture), in men grows stronger, so the voice of men, women are different, the male is quiet. , female in high.

The larynx is made up of cartilage, fibre, and muscle.

Cartilage frame

The laryngeal cartilage or cap cartilage, located high in front of the upper hole of the larynx, when lowered it will cover the larynx.

Chronic cartilage consists of 2 pieces forming an opening to the back, in which there is cap cartilage above.

The ring cartilage is a ring-like circle located under the tower on which is the cartilage.

The two funnel cartilages are upright, pillow on the posterior bank of the ring cartilage. When the cartilages turn up, the glottis will open or close.

There are also small unimportant cartilages such as Santorini cartilage and Wrisberg cartilage.

The muscles of the larynx

The muscle group narrows the glottis: the laryngeal ring muscles, the funnel-shaped muscles, the diaphragmatic and transverse funnel muscles, the pharynx funnel muscle.

Muscle group widening the glottis: the posterior funnel ring muscle, the pharyngeal cap crust.

The muscle groups stretch and loosen the vocal cords: the ring muscle, the vocal cords.

Membranes and ligaments

Joints cartilage and with surrounding organizations are mainly:

Hypothyroidism: connects cartilage to the nail bone.

Ring cartilage: connects the ring cartilage with the ring cartilage.

Ring-funnel ligament: connects the ring cartilage with the funnel cartilage.

The inner structure of the larynx

The inner surface of the larynx is lined with respiratory cylindrical cells, away from the free margin of the vocal cords is the Malpighi cell.

From top to bottom:

The vestibular larynx is the cavity that opens upwards.

Ventricular bandage.

Morgagni chamber.

The glottis is the cavity between the vocal cords.

The subglottic is the cavity that opens below the trachea.

The two outer sinuses open upwards into the lower throat.

Blood vessel

Arteries: The upper and lower laryngeal arteries are branches of the artery of the upper and lower thyroid. In general, the neural stem of the thyroid gland is also the neural stem of the larynx.

Vein: follow the artery pouring into the tongue and subclade vein.

Nerve

Due to the two upper and lower laryngeal nerves, separate from the X nerve.

Laryngeal line: sensation for the larynx above the vocal fold and motor rings of the ring.

Laryngeal larynx: or reversible laryngeal movement for most of the muscles of the larynx and feeling from the vocal fold down. The sympathetic nerve of the larynx separates the medial and upper neck sympathetic ganglia.

Larynx physiology

Breath

When breathing, the vocal cords are pulled away from the midline, allowing the glottis to expand to allow air to pass.

The above movement is performed by an open muscle (the funnel ring muscle).

The vocal cords are open and close in the rhythm of the medulla-mediated breathing rhythm.

Pronounce

Speech is released by the airflow exhaled from the lungs on the vocal folds.

The tension and position of the vocal fold affect the frequency of the sound.

The altered sound is caused by the resonance of the nasal sinuses, nasal cavities, mouth, pharynx and the help of the lips, tongue, and pharyngeal muscles.

Blow

Thanks to the movement of the chest, creating a flow of air from the lungs, air, bronchus up, creating a flow of air with pressure and for a certain period of time.

Rung

The vocal cords are closed.

The vocal cord mucosa vibrates due to the influx of air that creates pressure under the glottis, causing vocal cord tension.

The vocal cord tension is due to the vocal cord tension muscles, which are mainly the funnel-like muscles.

The bass or treble sounds depend on the more or less tension of the vocal cords.

Resonance

Thanks to the cavities in the glottis (larynx, pharynx, mouth, nose).