Pathology of acute rhinitis

2021-01-31 12:00 AM

The cause of acute rhinitis can also be factored in production, the effects of dust, smoke, coal metal dust in the air, acid vapours and some other chemicals.

Acute rhinitis is one of the most common diseases of the upper respiratory tract. It often occurs alone or in combination with a number of other acute respiratory infections.

 

Pathogenesis and pathogenesis

Factors causing infection can be from the outside into the nasal passages or by blood, especially rhinitis in common acute infections are Adenovirus, flu, measles, diphtheria ...

Neurological and reflex mechanisms are the basis of acute inflammation in the nasal mucosa. Acute rhinitis is usually a reaction of the body to a general cold or local cold in the nose.

Acute rhinitis is also seen after damage to the nasal mucosa such as: foreign bodies, burning with the nose, especially burning with electric coke.

The cause of acute rhinitis can also be factors in production, the effects of dust, smoke, coal metal dust in the air, acid vapours and some other chemicals.

Symptom

Acute rhinitis often causes damage to both sides of the nose simultaneously. The main symptoms are: heavy runny nose and stuffy nose, these symptoms can present in varying degrees depending on the stage of the disease as well as the condition of the nasal mucosa before. The progression of acute rhinitis is divided into 3 stages:

State 1

The disease started without any significant disturbances in the overall condition. Sneezing, a burning and burning sensation in the throat, especially in the nasal throat, sometimes hoarseness, often with a mild fever. In this early stage, the sensation is mainly dry throat and nasopharynx, red and dry mucous membranes.

Phase 2

After a few hours or even a few days the clinical picture changes, reducing the oedema of the mucosa, the mucosa becomes moist and begins to secrete more mucus, the patient feels more comfortable.

Stage 3 (pus-making)

The exudate becomes a purulent mucus by mixing with degenerative epithelial and white blood cells. Then the number of secretions gradually decreases, mucositis is quickly cleared and after 7-10 days, completely recovered.

For those with atrophy of the nasal mucosa, which may not completely stuffy the nose, the duration of the acute phase is shorter, although a sensation of dryness and irritation of the nasal mucosa may then increase for a while. long. In contrast to people with overgrowth of the nasal mucosa, the most manifestation is that the oedema and secretion of the mucosa will be much stronger.

In the early stages of acute rhinitis, the patient has a feeling of headaches that makes it difficult to focus on mental work. Due to mucosal oedema, changes in voice, bad smell caused by nasal congestion or inflammation spread into the olfactory area. Later often appeared pain in the forehead and eye socket, said to have symptoms of sinusitis, nasal secretion, causing the skin of the nasal passages to become red and easily swollen, often appear small cracks, with or Conjunctivitis due to infection via the tear duct and acute otitis media (due to inflammation through the ear canal).

Acute rhinitis in a nursing baby can be severe. In the first months, due to the structural and functional characteristics of the central nervous system, children are less susceptible to changes in the external environment than in adults. The nasal cavities are usually very small in the early years, and even a slight swelling can lead to a stuffy nose. So not only breathing disorders but also making it difficult for the baby to suckle. Children are thin, fussy, sleepy, or have a fever. The infection can spread to the frog's jaw, vocal cyst, bronchi and lungs. These complications are more common in children than in adults.

Diagnose

Implementing the quadrants

Diagnosis of rhinitis is not difficult, even without rhinoscopy, based on subjective and objective symptoms.

Differential diagnosis

In young children, if the inflammation is prolonged and the usual treatment is not successful, it is necessary to think about rhinitis caused by gonorrhoea or syphilis, and at the same time think of nasal diphtheria which often progresses without symptoms. Also do not forget to differentiate with symptoms of runny nose in acute infections such as: pertussis, whooping cough, scarlet fever. In this case a thorough history of epidemiology must be collected and a full body examination will be able to confirm the diagnosis.

Acute respiratory diseases often start with acute rhinitis in which the local manifestations of the disease are more widespread, invading the mucosa of the throat, larynx, trachea ... essentially acute rhinitis is a localized form of acute respiratory diseases. In differential diagnosis, flu should be thought of.

Treatment

When fever and rhinitis are severe, it should be treated, in the house should be well ventilated, avoid too cold and dry air.

Treatment as soon as possible, use antipyretic drugs, reduce fever. If you have a headache, give it a pain reliever.

Local treatment:

Eliminate nasal congestion: vasoconstrictor drugs can be used in the form of nasal drops or topical such as Ephedrine 2%, Naphazoline 0.1%

Treatment of aerosols: antibiotics, antihistamines and vasoconstriction.

In acute rhinitis in nursing children, 5-10 minutes before feeding, it is necessary to administer vasoconstrictor nasal drops (Adrenalin 0.1%).

Prognosis

Acute rhinitis in adults has a good prognosis, some cases can cause complications (sinusitis, otitis media, otitis media ...), the prognosis is poorer, the baby has a poorer prognosis.

Prevention

Prevention of acute upper respiratory tract infections, first of all must aim at physical training, especially those with atopic rhinitis. Measures to take hot baths, sunbathing, air baths and other forms of sports to strengthen the cardiovascular system and respiratory apparatus, helping the body generate normal responses ...

Also, because malformations in the nasal passages interfere with breathing and facilitate the development of recurrent rhinitis, normal nasal circulation must be restored to prevent the disease. Physical obstructions such as: hyperaemia, scoliosis of the nasal septum, tumours in the nasal passages ...

Patients should be instructed on how to blow their nose from each side when acute rhinitis is not blown too hard to avoid bringing the infection into the ear or mastoid.