Pathology of chronic pharyngitis

2021-01-31 12:00 AM

Feel dry, burning in the throat or have an itchy, sore throat, especially when waking up, trying to cough up phlegm

Define

Chronic pharyngitis is a chronic inflammation of the pharyngeal mucosa (made up of an intercellular layer, mucous glands and lymphocytes), very common. It is often associated with chronic rhinitis, sinus, vocality’s, and chronic bronchitis.

Chronic pharyngitis manifests itself in 3 forms: exudation, overgrowth and atrophy. Lesions may be widespread or localized.

Reason

Nasal congestion due to many reasons including the malformed septum, nasal polyps ... prolonged mouth breathing, especially in the cold season.

Rhinitis and sinus infections, especially the posterior sinusitis: purulent mucus always flows down the back of the throat.

Stimulants such as tobacco smoke, alcohol, dust, cotton fibers, chemicals ...

Atopic factors: geo-allergic, liver failure, diabetes ...

Symptom

Function

Feeling dry in the throat, burning in the throat or having an itchy, sore throat feeling, especially when waking up, trying to cough up phlegm, coughing to loosen phlegm, and thick and sticky phlegm usually increase when swallowing.

Patients often have to spit, with less mucus.

Cough more at night, when cold.

Swallowed slightly.

The voice was hoarse for a moment and then returned to normal.

When drinking, smoking a lot, talking a lot, the above symptoms become more and more obvious.

Entity

Depending on the injury, you can see:

Chronic secretory pharyngitis.

The mucous membrane of the pharynx is red, wet, has mucus secretions, and sticks to the back wall of the throat.

Spitting or washing away, the back of the throat is not smooth, there are a few blood rays and lymphoid follicles are raised into red, masonry particles. 

Excessive chronic pharyngitis.  

The pharyngeal mucosa is thick and red, the posterior pillar edge of the mucous tonsil is thickened, forming a pseudomorph (so the patient is very sensitive in the pharynx and very prone to nausea).

The posterior wall of the pharynx has strongly developed lymphocytes, which overproduce thickly into a higher raised, pink or reddish, often called granulitic.

The curtain and tongue are also thickened, the throat is narrow.

Eustachy is also over productive (the patient sees tinnitus).

The posterior edge of the larynx is thickened (so the patient coughs, hoarseness, exudates a lot).

Chronic atrophy pharyngitis: too long to turn to atrophy.

Mucous glands and lymphatic follicles are fibrosis.

The mucosa becomes smooth, thin, white with small blood vessels.

Wide throat.

The dry mucus turns into a scab that sticks to the mucosa (the patient must cough or cough).

Progression and complications

Chronic sore throats, when all causative factors are excluded, can also be cured. Often the chronic pharyngitis will turn through the stages of exudation, overgrowth and atrophy if left untreated. The weakening of the airway mucosa due to chemical dust also becomes atrophic pharyngitis.

Chronic pharyngitis also often leads to chronic laryngitis, chronic bronchitis ... or acute inflammatory episodes such as acute tonsillitis, tonsillitis ... 

Cause physical weakness, nervous breakdown by always spitting, especially at night.

Treatment

Treat the cause

Addressing potential inflammatory foci of the nose, sinuses (posterior sinusitis), tonsillitis.

Solving the circulation of the nose: septum malformation, nasal polyps, degenerative lower nasal bridge ...

Eliminate stimuli such as dust, chemicals, cigarettes, alcohol ...

Treatment of allergies (if due to geography).

Local treatment

Period of secretion

Gargle with alkaline solutions such as BBM, light saltwater ...

Apply and dab the throat with glycerine carbohydrate 3%.

Throat nebulizers: antibiotics and corticosteroids.

If there is a lot of sticky mucus in the back of the throat, wash with 1% sodium nitrate solution to remove scabs, apply throat and aerosol.

Overheating phase: heating electricity, high frequency or burning with liquid nitrogen or CO2 laser.

Atrophy stage

Apply Glycerine Iodine 0.5% or 1% mercury fat.

Prevention

Wear protective masks when exposed to dust and chemicals.

Gargle daily with a warm alkaline solution or saltwater.

Improve health: give vitamins A and D to drink, mineral water and mineral water.

Tonsillitis

(see article chronic tonsillitis).