Pathology of laryngeal dyspnea

2021-02-01 12:00 AM

Throat examination: white pseudomembranous, white-grey pseudomembranous, easily bleeding difficult, insoluble in water, and it is best to find diphtheria bacteria.

Laryngeal dyspnea is a very common syndrome caused by many different causes, especially in children at risk of death because the larynx is the narrowest part of the airways. Therefore, it is required that physicians have to diagnose quickly and accurately and promptly handle them.

Features of laryngeal dyspnea

Difficulty breathing in.

Difficulty breathing slowly.

There was a screech, tugging (shrinkage) noise in the upper part of the collarbone and sternum, the intercostal space.

Causes of laryngeal dyspnea

Difficulty breathing larynx due to inflammation

Laryngitis caused by diphtheria: often appears after pharyngeal diphtheria. The cause is diphtheria bacteria. Diphtheria dyspnea is characterized by slow and progressive dyspnea.

Infectious syndrome: moderate fever, increased number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

Toxicity syndrome: pale skin, lymph nodes in the neck and jaw corner.

Throat examination: pseudomembranous white in the throat, grey-white pseudomembranous, difficult to peel, easily bleeding, insoluble in water. It is best to look for diphtheria bacteria. Too late, the pseudosphere will spread down the larynx.

Signs of laryngeal dyspnea progress gradually.

Talking, crying hoarsely.

Cough, sometimes "he" cough.

Treatment

If breathing is difficult, open the emergency trachea.

Treatment with high-dose penicillin.

Serum against diphtheria.

Heart support.

Need close monitoring and treatment at infectious department.

Laryngitis caused by tuberculosis: lesions mainly in the inter-funnel common in adults, secondary to tuberculosis. Weak body, shortness of breath appeared slowly.

Viral laryngitis (influenza or measles).

Usually appear fever 39C- 40 0 C.

Shortness of breath often appears quickly, in a critical state: gray face, pale blue, shallow breathing, tired child.

This disease has a high mortality rate.

All signs are inflammation of the upper respiratory tract. When severe, the resistance is weak, it is easy to superinfection and leads to difficulty in breathing larynx, requiring intervention.

Due to the flu:

Characteristics: laryngitis, swelling of the subglottic progresses very quickly. Common in children under 3 years old, starting with rhinitis (flu-like). Then came laryngeal dyspnea, increasing dyspnea, hissing breathlessness, and a cough, hoarse voice.

Treatment: Depersolon should be injected immediately 2mg / 1kg intravenously, and at the same time solve the cause of infection by injecting antibiotics if bad progress must be opened trachea or intubated.

Measles: one week after the measles flies, sometimes it occurs with measles. Mainly hoarseness, the "he" coughs like a dog barking suddenly causing acute difficulty breathing.

Laryngitis caused by inflammation of the VA (hiss pharyngitis).

Or it happens in children 3-6 years old who appear at night. The baby suddenly wakes up, with paroxysmal dyspnea, glottis like constriction, dyspnea occurs for a few minutes, then the dyspnea is over, the baby sleeps again. The next day in a normal state. The dyspnea may reappear in the following nights, the cause may be VA inflammation, these children should have VA curettage.

Difficulty breathing larynx due to foreign larynx

Characteristics:

There is infiltration syndrome.

Metal objects such as pins, needles, pen caps ...

Due to inhalation of food while eating: such as rice, flour ...

Because foreign objects live in the forest inhale insects living in streams such as: starter, squeezing the forest.

Precaution: by taking good care of your children.

Laryngeal shortness of breath due to laryngeal tumors

It is possible that benign or malignant masses come from the larynx such as papilloma, polyps, or outside of the larynx such as: cancer of the lower throat, abscess of the deep throat wall.

Laryngeal dyspnea due to laryngeal injury and laryngeal stenosis

Injuries due to crushing or edema of the larynx such as: bomb shards, bullets, traffic accidents, labor accidents ...

Laryngeal stenosis: after trauma, after tracheostomy, after laryngeal surgery.

Laryngeal dyspnea due to birth defects in the larynx: laryngeal cartilage

Trouble breathing larynx due to neurological causes

Paralysis of the laryngeal opening muscles: posterior ring-funnel muscle due to regression cord paralysis.

Paralysis of muscles: muscles of the funnel-funnel, muscles of the inter-funnel, the muscles of the ring-funnel.

Difficulty level of breathing

Symptom

Grade I dyspnea

Grade II dyspnea

Grade III dyspnea

Body

Normal

 

Arousing struggles, anxiety

Inhibited state, lethargic, lying still purple, gradually falling into a coma, playing with hands and feet, catching dragonflies

Function

Difficulty breathing when exertion, not hoarse

Typical laryngeal dyspnea (difficulty breathing slowly, breathing in, concave breathing muscles, wheezing sounds), cough, hoarseness

Shortness of breath, shortness of breath, trouble breathing, and hoarseness

To solve

Anti-inflammatory, anti-edema, sedative.

Breathe oxygen

Follow.

Open the emergency trachea

Intensive care

Severe tracheostomy. Respiratory support.

Treatment attitude

Breathe oxygen.

Endotracheal intubation or emergency tracheostomy when indicated.

Addressing the cause: taking airway foreign bodies, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory, anti-edema.

Sedative.

Watch for difficulty breathing.