Sinus anatomy and physiology

2021-01-31 12:00 AM

Each nasal roll fits the outer wall of the nasal cavity to form a nasal mass or niche. The names of the nasal passages are named after the respective nasal passages: the upper, middle and lower nasal passages.

Nasal surgery

Includes nasal tower and nasal cavity.

Nose tower

Like a roof covering the nostrils, the frame is the main bone of the nose, branches up the maxilla, the nasal cartilage and the cartilage curling around the nostrils.

Nasal cavity

The septum divides the nasal cavity into the right and left nasal cavities, which are the two spaces that go from front to back. The front has two nostrils, the rear has two rear doors.

Each nasal cavity has 4 walls:

Upper wall: is the ceiling of the nasal cavity, separating the nasal cavity from the skull.

Lower wall: is the floor of the nose, separating the nose from the mouth.

Inner wall: or the nasal septum is a straight wall going from the ceiling of the nose to the noise floor and running from front to back, dividing the nose into two right and left nostrils. The blood vessels of the nasal septum are concentrated in the anterior and lower region of the lining of the nasal septum, forming an area with many blood vessels called the vascular point, where nasal bleeding usually occurs.

Outer city is the most important city. The outer wall has 3 bent bones, also called curly bones in the order above, between, and below. The three curly bones covered by the outer mucosa are named: upper nose, middle nose and lower nose.

Each nasal role fits the outer wall of the nasal cavity to form a nasal mass or niche. The names of the nasal passages are called according to the names of the respective nasal folds: the upper nose niche, the middle nose niche and the lower nose niche.

The lower nasal passages at the end have the opening of the tear duct, this tube down from the tear sac.

The medial nasal septum is the place to open the nasal cavity of the jaw sinuses, the anterior sieve and the frontal sinus.

The upper nasal septum is the opening to the nasal cavity of the posterior sieve, while the butterfly sinus has a direct opening to the upper and posterior part of the nasal cavity.

The speaker hose is located more than 1cm away from the middle of the nose to the back and slightly down. Behind the upper nasal coil tail is the female palate hole, where the female palate artery and the female palate nerve (nasal branch) exit. From the back of the middle nose up the nasal mucosa contains olfactory cells.

Nasal physiology

The functions of the nose: breathe, pronounce and smell. The air is heated, moist and purified before entering the lungs.


As the main function, the lateral wall of the nasal cavity plays a fundamental role in the physiology of inhalation. The nose warms, moistens and cleanses the air done by the nasal mucosa, which has a system of single cylindrical mucosa with hairs that move with secretory cells, with a structure rich in blood vessels. This mucus captures foreign objects so the hair cells move out the back of the nose at a rate of 400 to 800 beats / 1 minute. This mucous membrane system works very effectively, it protects the epithelium of the nose but is also susceptible to inflammation, moisture, chemistry, dust, bacteria, bacteria, mould ...

Cell system in the submucosa, producing phagocytes and immune humour such as IgE, IgG, IgA, IgM ...


This is done by the olfactory mucosa located at the high end of the nasal cavity, with sensory glass cells and the terminal of the olfactory nerve, on an area of ​​2-3 cm2, also known as the macula. To smell the air must reach the smell zone. Smelly substances must be dissolved in the mucous membranes of sensory cells in order to generate stimulation to the olfactory nerve.


The nose has an impact on the voice, creating timbre and tone of the voice. When the nasal passages are blocked or the nostrils are covered after or before, the voice loses its resonance, changing tones is called a closed nasal voice.

Sinus surgery

Anatomical structure

Sinuses are niches located in the skull and bear the name with the name of the bone. For example, the frontal sinus is in the frontal bone, the jaw sinus is in the upper jaw bone. In the sinus lumen lined by the respiratory mucosa, the sinus secretions are poured into the nasal passages through the small holes (the nasal-sinus openings). The sinuses all have openings connected to each other, so when a sinus inflammation lasts, it is easy to lead to other sinuses called poly sinusitis.

The facial sinuses are divided into 2 groups:

Anterior sinus group: the maxillary sinus, anterior sinus, frontal sinus around the eye socket. This group of sinuses are poured into the middle nasal passages, then the mucus passes through the inner surface of the middle nose in the back to pour into the throat and nose. Through endoscopy, it has been proven that the secretions from the frontal sinuses, sinuses, and sinuses are transported backwards to be poured into the nasopharynx. This area is open to the outside, prone to infection and easy to cause eye complications. When the first birth, the sinuses were clear, the jaw sinus was still small, the frontal sinus was about 4-7 years old before it began to develop. The anterior sinus has a hole with a wide nasal cavity, which is more related to the upper molars, so the anterior sinuses often suffer from acute bacterial infections.

The posterior sinus group: the posterior sieve and the butterfly sinus at the base of the skull, relating to the posterior orbit, optic nerve, cavernous sinus, and pituitary. The posterior sieve sifted into the upper nasal passages, and the butterfly sinuses fell into the olfactory area of ​​the nasal fossa. This area is more closed, less likely to be invaded by an external pathological cause. Because the posterior sinus has an opening with the nose behind the upper nasal passages, the secretions often drain down the throat.

Blood vessel

Derived from the following 2 main sources of blood vessels:

External carotid artery: The female palate artery is the branch of the inner jaw artery. The ascending oral artery is the branch of the facial artery.

Inner carotid artery: the anterior sieve and posterior sieve artery are the branches of the eye artery.

The branches of these vessels are concentrated in the anterior region of the nasal septum forming a vascular point (called the Kissel Bach vascular point), where nasal bleeding occurs.


Olfactory nerve.

Sensory nerves are dominated by the V-wire.

Nervous plants are dominated by the female palate.


The physiology of the sinuses is based on 2 main points:

Air circulation.


The role of hairs to transfer the sinus mucosa and the natural openings of the sinuses poured into the middle and upper nasal passages to ensure these two functions. If the openings become blocked, the hair follicle is damaged, a medical condition develops in the sinuses.