Anatomy of a disease of the oestrogens

2021-05-13 12:08 PM

The upper oestrogens ring is in the form of a constriction in the upper aorta. The disease is common in women over 40 years old

The oestrogens have a mucosal layer that is an unkeratosis paved epithelium, the segment near the centre of the heart has a gland resembling the centromere. There are 2 types of oestrogens muscle: striated muscle in the upper 1/3 and smooth muscle in the lower 2/3. Because there is no serosa, so damage to the oestrogens often causes complications to probe into the trachea, mediastinum.  

Food from the oestrogens to the stomach is very fast, but to avoid the reflux from the stomach to the oestrogens because the abdominal pressure is higher than the lumen pressure, there are 2 sphincters upper and lower. The lower sphincter opens and closes according to the regulation of the amount of gastrin: when food descends into the cavity, it stimulates the secretion of gastrin, increases the tone of the lower sphincter.

Birth defects

Rare oestrogens birth defects, if any, are usually found right after birth: the baby vomits while nursing. These defects include:

Narrow and probe the oestrogens.

Infertility of the oestrogens.

Defects are more common than stenosis. The oestrogens do not have a lumen and is constricted like a thread. In terms of embryogenesis, the gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract develop from a common tube, so this tube defect is often accompanied by another tube defect: 80-90% of the stenosis of the oestrogens has a fistula with the trachea, in the split segment. into 2 main bronchi. As a result, food flows into the trachea causing vomiting, choking, electrolyte disturbances, pneumonia and death.

Heart spasms

Meet at all ages, gender. Due to the lack of neurons in the Auerbach plexus, usually in the middle of the oestrogens, the lower oestrogens lose motility, causing an obstruction.

Common symptoms are increased swallowing choking, food stagnation causing vomiting, especially at night leading to complications of pneumonia inhalation. Choking, gagging make the patient malnourished and gradually exhausted.

The disease can be treated with medicine or with a surgical dilatation of the lower sphincter. About 5% of cases progress to oestrogens cancer.

Oestrogen’s ring

There are 2 types: upper and lower.

The upper oestrogens ring is in the form of a constriction in the upper aorta. The disease is common in women over 40 years old who have hypochromia in Plummer-Vinson syndrome. Mucosa over the tight ring can be inverse, increasing the risk of cancer in the upper oestrogens. Treatment of anaemia is also cured of cyclic ring disease.

The lower oestrogens ring is in the lower oestrogens, where the parietal and mesothelioma is bordered. Ring in the form of ridges several mm high protruding into the lumen of the oestrogens. Under the microscope, these edges have the upper layer of the parenchyma, the lower layer is the high stromal tissue, the middle layer consists of connective tissue rich in blood vessels and penetrates many inflammatory cells.

The disease causes increased choking, alternating asymptomatic periods. Pathogenesis is unknown.

Diaphragmatic hernia

Common in older, obese women. Patients have burning pain behind the sternum.

2 types:      

Sliding herniation (accounting for 90%), the end of the oestrogens is enlarged in a bell-shaped top in the heart of the heart, pulling part of the centripetal slide up the chest.

A herniated hernia, a part of the mind that rolls back up around the oestrogens.

Scratches the oestrogens - Mallory Weiss syndrome

In alcoholic drinkers, vomiting causes scratches ranging from a few millimetres to several centimetres along with the oestrogens near the centre of the heart. The scratch can be shallow in the mucosa or sometimes penetrate the oestrogens, causing massive vomiting, death.

Varicose oestrogens veins

Swollen, zigzag veins of the oestrogens. This is one of the consequences of portal hypertension. Usually in the lower third of the oestrogens, in the submucosa, pushing the mucosa protruding into the lumen of the oestrogens, making it susceptible to infection. When dilated veins rupture, haemorrhage can be fatal.

Sclerosis of the oestrogens

Occurs in patients with scleroderma, a systemic disease that causes damage to many organs.

In the digestive tract, the oestrogens and small intestine suffer from fibrosis of the submucosa, atrophy of the smooth muscle layer, and eventually atrophy and ulceration of the mucous layer.

The progressive disease causes stiffening and gradually narrowing to the colon. The prognosis is very bad.

Oestrogen’s diverticulum

These are 2 to 4 cm sized pouches, lined with a mucosa layer and a few surrounding fibres. The diverticula in the upper third and lower third of the oestrogens is often caused by increased pressure in the lumen of the oestrogens in diaphragmatic hernias, spasms of the heart, and oestrogens. The diverticula in the middle 1/3 is usually the result of esophagitis.

The oestrogens diverticula usually do not show any clinical manifestations when it is small. When large enough, there is food stagnation in the bag, which can cause choking, gagging, heavy feeling in the back of the neck, worse complications can cause pneumonia, diverticulitis, haemorrhage, vomiting blood.

Esophagitis

Causes choking, pain behind the sternum, vomiting blood (due to haemorrhage). Reason:

Gastric reflux is the most common cause.

Place a nasogastric tube for a long time.

Drink mistakenly or commit suicide with chemicals.

Increased blood urea.

Sepsis.

Fungal infection: Candida

Infected virus: Cytomegalovirus, virus Herpes simplex

Radiation (chest, mediastinum)

Depending on the severity of the impact of the cause of the inflammation, the damage can be mild, such as congestion, swelling and penetration of many inflammatory cells in the submucosa. The stratified epithelium can transform into a high cylindrical adrenal, capable of causing ulcerative peptic ulcers.

About 10% of esophagitis progresses to carcinoma.

Barrett's oestrogens

Barrett's oestrogens are cylindrical epithelial metaplasia of the epithelium slicing more than 3 cm long at the end of the oestrogens.

The pathogenesis can be congenital or acquired, occurring after reflux oesophagitis or persistent ulcers. It can occur in children due to the side effects of acute leukaemia chemotherapy.

Micro:

There are 3 possible:

Intestinal metaplasia with cells with villi, myeloid glandular cells.

The stem cell is composed of parietal cells and main cells.

Cells resemble the mind with many mucus glands.

Symptoms:

The most important is oestrogens carcinoma. The risk of progression to oestrogens carcinoma is 30-40 times higher than normal. About 5 - 10% of oestrogens cancers are associated with Barrett's oestrogens. 

Benign tumours

Often found by accident due to autopsy because of fewer clinical symptoms. The tumour is usually small, less than 3 cm in diameter, mostly present in the wall, submucosa, dense and gray.

The most common type of tumour is smooth muscle tumour. Other types of tumours are fibroids, adipoma, haemangiomas, neural fibroids, lymphomas, papilloma’s (papilloma cells).

Cancer

Cancer of the oestrogens has an incidence of about 10% of cancers of the digestive tract.

The most common age of the disease is 50 years old. Rarely in children. The incidence of disease among men is 4 times higher than that of women. Blacks are four times more susceptible to disease than whites. There are three regions in the world with a high prevalence of the disease: Northeast Iran (where oestrogens cancer is the leading cause of death in adults), the Transkei region in North Africa and South China.

According to Nguyen Chan Hung et al., In the city. In Ho Chi Minh City, in 1997, among the 10 types of cancer with the highest incidence, oestrogens cancer ranked fifth among men. The disease also usually has a higher prevalence in people with a history of esophagitis (especially inflammation due to gastric juice), oestrogens spasm, oestrogens stenosis, oestrogens diverticulum. Environmental factors also influence the incidence of the disease. Smoking, drinking, eating spicy and hot substances are susceptible to oestrogens cancer. At first, the tumour usually does not cause symptoms and so is often found late, difficult to cure.

General:

Like other squamous cell carcinomas elsewhere, oestrogens cancer begins with cancer in situ. In 50% of cases, lesions begin in the lower third. 30% in the middle 1/3 and 20% in the top 1/3. At first, the lesion is small in the form of a gray-white raised plaque in the mucosa.

The damage spreads along the oestrogen’s axis, then narrows the lumen of the oestrogens. From there, there are 3 types of lesions:

60% are polyploid lesions that end up in the lumen of the oestrogens.

25% are necrotic ulcerative lesions, penetrating the surrounding tissue, into the bronchial region, into the aorta, into the mediastinum and the pericardium.

15% are hard eater lesions spread along the oestrogens wall, thickening, stiffening, narrowing of the oestrogens with mucosal ulcers.

Micro:

Approximately 60-70% of cases are poor or highly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas. Approximately 5-10% of cases are adenocarcinoma (originating from the mucous glands of the oestrogens or due to the oestrogens mucosal transformation into single cylindrical epithelium). The remaining cases are undifferentiated cancers, including degenerative, multiforme, large or sometimes homologous small cells with hyperchromic nuclei (called barley-cell carcinoma, which is considered to originate from endocrine cells and is a tumour in the tumour group of the diffuse endocrine system APUDOMA can secrete a hormone-containing amine and polypeptide).

All oestrogens cancers have spread by approach and may cause metastasis to cervical lymph nodes, middle third for bronchial lymph node metastases, and lower third for gastrointestinal lymph node metastases. Visceral metastases most commonly reached the liver and lungs. Spreads directly to the larynx, trachea, thyroid, retrograde nerve, pericardium.

Evaluate oestrogens cancer by 4 stages:

Stage I: localized lesions in the oestrogens, less than 5cm.

Stage II: localized lesions in the oestrogens, more than 5cm in length, with potentially resectable lymph nodes.

Stage III: lesions over 10cm, eating nearby structures and unable to dissect lesions and lymph nodes.

Stage IV: lesions like in stage III with perforation or distant metastasis.

Clinical manifestations are often not obvious at first, may develop with difficulty swallowing and then gradually congestion of the oestrogens. Patient has difficulty swallowing from liquid food to solid food. Weight loss, weakness due to lack of nutrition and the effects of haemorrhagic tumours and infections can be caused by ulcers.

Sometimes the alarm symptom is a symptom of inhaling food into the lungs because of the oestrogens-tracheal opening. This fistula is almost always a complication of oestrogens cancer, and rarely, bronchial cancer. Relatively slow metastasis, when the lesions in the area are already severe.

The prognosis is poor, 70% of patients live no more than 1 year after diagnosis and only 5-10% live for 5 years.

Diagnosis of oestrogens cancer:

Based on clinical symptoms, X-ray of the oestrogens with contrast, endoscopy, endoscopic biopsy.

Treatment:

Mainly by surgery. However, due to the location and natural progression of oestrogens cancer, most cases cannot be completely treated. Chemotherapy is only an adjunct to surgery. Radiotherapy did not show results.