Anatomy of endometrial diseases and drugs

2021-05-13 11:53 AM

Haemorrhage is abnormal, and has a synergistic effect with progesterone, helping to lower the progestin dose in the oral contraceptive pill.

Oestrogen

Oestrogen can stimulate the endothelium even at low doses. Long-term test oestrogen in rabbits induces endometrial cancer. In humans, long-term use of oestrogen can cause endometrial hyperplasia, and in a small number of patients, oestrogen can cause endometrial carcinoma.

Steroids (a combination of progestin-oestrogens)

Steroids are chemically formulated and metabolized differently from natural hormones.

The oestrogen component in the vaccine is the 17-alpha-ethinylestradiol or 3-methyl ether of ethinylestradiol (mestranol). The progesterone component is a derivative of 19-nor-testosterone or 17-hydroxy-progesterone with an acetylated 17-alpha-hydroxyl group.

Progesterone-like substances prevent ovulation by inhibiting the secretion of LH by a feedback mechanism.

Oestrogen-like substances stimulate the endometrium, prevent Abnormal bleeding, and resonate with progesterone, helping to lower the progestin dose in birth control pills.

Micro:

Even in the first menstrual cycle with the use of birth control pills, glands stop growing and differentiate, the stage of development is shortened and the stage of secretion is absent or very few. Glycogen vacuoles appear early and scattered in the glands. The endothelial stromal tissue is oedematous and has a shedding reaction, absorbing many polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

If using the drug for a long time, the endothelium is atrophy, consisting of small, scattered glands lined by a flat layer of epithelial cells. The helical vessels are underdeveloped, and the sinuses, with thin vessel walls, appear in the stroma.

Long-term use of low-dose birth control pills (20-35 micrograms ethinyloestradiol) can cause amenorrhea or menstrual bleeding. These symptoms are caused by low oestrogen levels, which are not enough to stimulate the endometrium to develop. Then, if you take a drug with a higher dose of oestrogen in the pill, the symptoms above will stop.

Clomiphene citrate

Clomiphene citrate (Clomid) is a non-steroidal substance, similar to DES, that is effective when taken by mouth and binds to oestrogen receptors. Clomiphene reduces oestrogen receptors in the hypothalamus.

Then the amount of hormonal oestrogen appears to below, and the hormone gonadotropin is secreted, which stimulates the brain lobe to secrete FSH and LH.

When Clomiphene is used to induce ovulation, the endometrium changes similar to that during a normal menstrual cycle.