Lectures on internal pathology
Lung abscesses can be classified based on the duration of the disease and the cause. Acute abscesses when less than 4-6 weeks or more than 6 weeks are considered chronic.
Insecticides of the anticholinesterase group enter the blood and bind to cholinesterase, causing acetylcholine to increase in the nerve endings of toxic nerve endings
Decompensated heart failure is a clinical syndrome in which changes in the structure and function of the heart make it impossible for the heart to perform its job of supplying blood to the entire human body. At this time, the symptoms of heart failure are becoming more and more obvious
Grade IV: loss of physical mobility, functional symptoms of heart failure occur even at rest, even mild exercise increases symptoms
Under normal conditions, the heart is controlled by impulses emanating from the sinus node located below the pericardium, which connects the superior vena cava and the right atrium.
Doppler ultrasonography is the most accurate noninvasive exploratory method for quantifying the extent of mitral stenosis and assessing pulmonary artery pressure.
Anti-inflammatory drugs should be used with caution in patients with a history of epigastric pain, a history of allergies, nephritis and liver failure, the elderly, and pregnant women
Buffer systems in the blood: Mainly carbonic acid and bicarbonate, but also phosphate, protein, hemoglobin, carbonate
Due to vomiting, gastric aspiration, diuretic therapy with reduction of extracellular fluid volume, compensates for NaCl 0.9% to restore extracellular fluid and provide Cl- combined with KCl.
Respiratory alkalosis due to prolonged acidosis and too slow central nervous system regulation, still rapid and deep breathing => Respiratory alkalosis
Diagnose when pH decreases (decreased myocardial contractility, decreased blood pressure, decreased response to vasopressors (compensated from the lungs, rapid deep breathing to increase CO2 clearance)
The use of bicarbonate to correct acidosis is harmful because pH is a respiratory stimulus in patients with chronically elevated PaCO2
After using Epinephrine and intravenous fluids, we must use large molecular fluids such as Dextran, Plasma under the control of CVP
Based on the cause of acute renal failure: shock, severe cold, hemoglobinuria, poisoning, urinary stones
The function of the body is to maintain fluid balance, maintain normal electrolyte concentrations and pH within physiological changes, and regulate the kidneys and lungs
Hypernatremia with osmotic pressure due to dehydration and salt loss, mainly dehydration is common in a diabetic coma
If ECG shows changes of hyperkalemia, life-threatening arrhythmias can occur at any time during treatment
Infarction-induced cardiogenic shock accounts for about 10% of patients with acute myocardial infarction, usually occurring on the first and second day of illness.
A syndrome of acute circulatory failure due to decreased cardiac output leading to tissue and tissue hypoxia because of bacteria or toxins.
Patients infected with streptococcus with symptoms of fever, sore throat for about 10 days. After the systemic infection is gone, symptoms of acute glomerulonephritis begin to appear
When UTI is accompanied by an abnormality of the anatomy, or function of the urinary apparatus, such as urinary catheter, stones, urinary tract infection after surgery.
Proteinuria is not selective. Urine contains all proteins, including small and large molecular weight proteins. Protein/urine electrophoresis. Composition similar to plasma
The normal volume of pleural fluid is about 5 to 15 mL, but the cycle can be greater than 1 liter in 24 hours
For maximum efficacy, dose reduction with high-dose corticosteroids is not recommended until clinical improvement is evident
Mortality rates are about 1% for out-of-hospital cases and 5-30% for in-hospital cases, depending on severity