Lectures on internal pathology

Lecture on pericardial disease, Lecture on buffering and acid-base systems, Lecture on diagnosis and treatment of hepatic coma, Lecture on diagnosis and treatment of peptic ulcer.

Lecture lung abscess and pleural effusion

Lung abscesses can be classified based on the duration of the disease and the cause. Acute abscesses when less than 4-6 weeks or more than 6 weeks are considered chronic.


Poisoning with Cholinesterase-resistant pesticides

Insecticides of the anticholinesterase group enter the blood and bind to cholinesterase, causing acetylcholine to increase in the nerve endings of toxic nerve endings

Acute decompensation in heart failure

Decompensated heart failure is a clinical syndrome in which changes in the structure and function of the heart make it impossible for the heart to perform its job of supplying blood to the entire human body. At this time, the symptoms of heart failure are becoming more and more obvious

Lecture on pathology of heart failure

Grade IV: loss of physical mobility, functional symptoms of heart failure occur even at rest, even mild exercise increases symptoms

Lectures on bradycardia disorder

Under normal conditions, the heart is controlled by impulses emanating from the sinus node located below the pericardium, which connects the superior vena cava and the right atrium.

Lectures on mitral stenosis

Doppler ultrasonography is the most accurate noninvasive exploratory method for quantifying the extent of mitral stenosis and assessing pulmonary artery pressure.

Lectures on joint diseases and treatment

Anti-inflammatory drugs should be used with caution in patients with a history of epigastric pain, a history of allergies, nephritis and liver failure, the elderly, and pregnant women

Lectures on buffering and acid-base systems

Buffer systems in the blood: Mainly carbonic acid and bicarbonate, but also phosphate, protein, hemoglobin, carbonate

Lectures on metabolic alkalosis

Due to vomiting, gastric aspiration, diuretic therapy with reduction of extracellular fluid volume, compensates for NaCl 0.9% to restore extracellular fluid and provide Cl- combined with KCl.

Lectures on Respiratory Alkalosis

Respiratory alkalosis due to prolonged acidosis and too slow central nervous system regulation, still rapid and deep breathing => Respiratory alkalosis

Lecture on metabolic acidosis

Diagnose when pH decreases (decreased myocardial contractility, decreased blood pressure, decreased response to vasopressors (compensated from the lungs, rapid deep breathing to increase CO2 clearance)

Lecture on Respiratory Acidosis

The use of bicarbonate to correct acidosis is harmful because pH is a respiratory stimulus in patients with chronically elevated PaCO2

Lecture on Anaphylaxis

After using Epinephrine and intravenous fluids, we must use large molecular fluids such as Dextran, Plasma under the control of CVP

Lecture on acute renal failure

Based on the cause of acute renal failure: shock, severe cold, hemoglobinuria, poisoning, urinary stones

Lecture on fluid and electrolyte disorders

The function of the body is to maintain fluid balance, maintain normal electrolyte concentrations and pH within physiological changes, and regulate the kidneys and lungs

Lecture on hypernatremia and hyponatremia

Hypernatremia with osmotic pressure due to dehydration and salt loss, mainly dehydration is common in a diabetic coma

Lectures on increase and decrease the blood Potassium

If ECG shows changes of hyperkalemia, life-threatening arrhythmias can occur at any time during treatment

Lectures on cardiogenic shock and shock due to myocardial infarction

Infarction-induced cardiogenic shock accounts for about 10% of patients with acute myocardial infarction, usually occurring on the first and second day of illness.

Lectures on infectious shock

A syndrome of acute circulatory failure due to decreased cardiac output leading to tissue and tissue hypoxia because of bacteria or toxins.

Lecture on the treatment of acute glomerulonephritis

Patients infected with streptococcus with symptoms of fever, sore throat for about 10 days. After the systemic infection is gone, symptoms of acute glomerulonephritis begin to appear

Lectures on the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTI)

When UTI is accompanied by an abnormality of the anatomy, or function of the urinary apparatus, such as urinary catheter, stones, urinary tract infection after surgery.

Lectures on the treatment of nephrotic syndrome

Proteinuria is not selective. Urine contains all proteins, including small and large molecular weight proteins. Protein/urine electrophoresis. Composition similar to plasma

Lectures on pleural effusion

The normal volume of pleural fluid is about 5 to 15 mL, but the cycle can be greater than 1 liter in 24 hours

Lectures on the treatment of bronchial asthma

For maximum efficacy, dose reduction with high-dose corticosteroids is not recommended until clinical improvement is evident

Lecture on community pneumonia

Mortality rates are about 1% for out-of-hospital cases and 5-30% for in-hospital cases, depending on severity