Acute decompensation in heart failure

2021-08-13 08:19 PM

Decompensated heart failure is a clinical syndrome in which changes in the structure and function of the heart make it impossible for the heart to perform its job of supplying blood to the entire human body. At this time, the symptoms of heart failure are becoming more and more obvious

Acute decompensated heart failure accounts for 80% of hospitalizations for acute heart failure, and the remaining 20% ​​is for first-time acute heart failure.

Causes of decompensated heart failure

Some causes of decompensated heart failure include:

Decompensated heart failure developing from congestive heart failure: this is the most dangerous case because there is no possibility of successful treatment.

Decompensated heart failure due to cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, myocardial ischemia, hypertension.

Other causes such as:

Pulmonary edema

Whole-body infection

Viral infections affecting the heart

Anaphylaxis

Severe arrhythmia

Cardiac and artificial lung surgery.

Decompensated heart failure can be caused by cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease, myocardial ischemia, and hypertension

Symptoms of decompensated heart failure

Unlike compensated heart failure, where there are no symptoms, decompensated heart failure will become more obvious and more severe with the following symptoms:

Body anxiety, poor eating

Memory loss

Body sweat a lot

Shortness of breath, cough with exertion, paroxysmal nocturnal paroxysmal, even more, difficult to breathe when lying down and cough more

Blood pressure drops

Heartbeat fast

Edema, soft edema, concave pressure.

As the disease progresses, the above symptoms are also obvious and seriously affect the patient's life. Patients can also suffer from heart attacks and stroke.

In elderly patients, diseases of the weakened immune system may prevent the patient from developing symptoms of decompensated heart failure.

Diagnosis of decompensated heart failure

To diagnose as well as contribute to the prognosis of decompensated heart failure, patients should be examined by clinical examination combined with the following laboratory techniques:

Blood tests

X-ray

Stress therapy

Echocardiography

ECG

Computerized tomography

Magnetic resonance imaging.

Prevention of decompensated heart failure

To prevent decompensated heart failure :

For patients who are suffering from cardiovascular diseases but have not yet progressed to the heart failure stage, it is necessary to treat them carefully as prescribed by the doctor to prevent heart failure in the patient.

For people who have lost a lot of blood after an accident or surgery, it is necessary to replenish the body with many nutrients after recovery.

Do not smoke to prevent increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, decreased blood oxygen. Smoking is also a contraindication for heart transplant surgery.

Limit the use of beer and alcohol.

For people who are overweight and obese, it is necessary to lose weight and maintain a suitable diet and exercise regimen. Can consult with a nutritionist in case of need.

Eat less salt.

Diets reduce fat and cholesterol.

Maintain a daily exercise regimen.

Reduce stress and stress in life.

Treatment of decompensated heart failure

Medical treatment of decompensated heart failure with drugs

Medical treatment

Classes of drugs used to treat decompensated heart failure include:

Diuretics are aimed at reducing circulatory volume, reducing the burden on the heart, and resolving pulmonary edema, leg and abdominal edema.

Vasodilators: include calcium channel blockers, angiotensin II receptor blockers.

Cardiac drugs aim to increase the force of contraction of the heart.

Antiarrhythmic drugs to reduce tachycardia and palpitations.

Anticoagulants are used to prevent heart failure complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke.

Sedatives help patients reduce anxiety and stress.

Surgical treatment

For severe heart failure, patients with decompensated heart failure will be indicated for surgical intervention according to the cause of the disease, including the following types of surgery:

Arterial bypass surgery, stenting for the purpose of clearing and enhancing blood supply to the heart, is indicated for patients with coronary artery disease.

Heart valve surgery: can repair or replace a new heart valve

Pacemaker resynchronization therapy for patients with decompensated heart failure with bradycardia

Implant defibrillator

Ventricular assist device

Heart transplantation is indicated for patients with severe heart failure and unresponsive to other therapies.

Lifestyle changes:

Eat scientifically with salt content not exceeding 1.5g/day, eat foods rich in fiber and potassium. Do not eat fast food, foods that contain a lot of fat, sugar...

  • No smoking.
  • Have a suitable exercise regimen.
  • Prevent infections by cleaning the body, vaccinating...
  • Keep your mind at ease, free from stress and anxiety.
  • Routine cardiovascular examination.