Lectures on pathophysiology
This reabsorption is initiated by an in-tubular reaction between the glomerular HCO3- and excreted by the tubular wall cell.
For each last formed T or B function, the genetic makeup codes indicate only one specific antigen. The adult cells then become highly specific T and B cells that multiply and spread to the end of the lymphoid tissue.
Millions of types of B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes capable of forming highly specific types of antibodies or T cells have been stored in the lymphoid tissues, explained earlier.
The acquired immunity is caused by a special immune system that forms antibodies and or activates lymphocytes to attack and destroy specific invasive microorganisms or toxins.
Congenital immunity makes the human body resistant to diseases such as certain animal polio virus infections, swine fever, animal disease, and distemper disease.
A common effect of leukaemia is the development of infection, severe anaemia, and platelet deficiency. These effects mainly result from the replacement of normal white blood cells with inactive leukaemia cells.
Two common types of Leukaemia: Lymphoid leukaemia is caused by an overproduction of lymphocytes, which usually begins in one lymph node or another lymphoid tissue and then spreads to other areas of the body.
For 2 days after the bone marrow stops producing white blood cells, ulcers may develop in the mouth and large intestine or in some people severe respiratory infections may develop. Bacteria from the sores quickly penetrate the tissue and blood.
Eosinophils and eosinophils play an important role in many types of allergic reactions because of the antibodies that induce allergic reactions, IgE has a special tendency to bind to mast cells and eosinophils
Eosinophils also tend to be particularly concentrated in tissues with an allergic reaction, such as in the peri-bronchial tissues in people with bronchial asthma and in the skin following an allergic skin reaction.
When the neutrophils and the macrophages swallow most of the bacteria and necrotic tissue, basically all the neutrophils and the majority of the macrophages will eventually die
Macrophages are capable of phagocytosis with more bacteria (about 5 times) and larger particles, including granulocytes. Macrophages also play an important role in initiating antibody production.
Inflammation is characterized by dilation of local vessels, causing increased local blood flow; increased permeability of capillaries, allowing the leakage of large amounts of fluid into the interstitial space; often coagulate fluid in the interstitial space.
The complete combination of monocytes, mobile macrophages, fixed tissue macrophages, and a few specialized endothelial cells in the bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes is called the endothelial retinal system
In addition to digesting bacteria ingested in the phagosome, neutrophils and macrophages also contain bactericidal agents that kill most bacteria even when lysosome enzymes cannot digest them.
Both granulocytes and macrophages are able to move through the tissue with an amoebic motion. Some cells travel at a speed of about 40 µm / ph, a great distance from their length per minute.
The life of leukocytes after leaving the bone marrow is usually 4-8 hours in circulating blood and about 4-5 days in the tissues that need them. In severe tissue infections, life is often shortened to only a few hours.
Leukocytes formed in the bone marrow are stored in the bone marrow until they are needed to enter the circulatory system. Then, when the need arises, various factors cause them to be released.
Six types of normal leukocytes are present in the blood: polymorphonuclear neutrophils, acid-loving polymorphonuclear leukocytes, basophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes, and sometimes cytoplasm.
In polycythaemia vera, the amount of blood in this plexus is greatly increased. Furthermore, since blood flows slowly through the skin capillaries before entering the venous plexus, a larger amount of reduced haemoglobin is required.
Cells do not stop producing red blood cells when they have enough red blood cells. This causes an overproduction of red blood cells as in breast cancer an overproduction of a certain type of breast cell.
Increased cardiac output in people with partial anaemia compensates for the lack of oxygen due to anaemia because although each number of blood units carries only a small amount of oxygen, the blood flow can increase enough to an almost normal amount of oxygen. oxygen to the tissues.
When chronic blood loss occurs, a person typically cannot absorb iron from the intestines to form haemoglobin as quickly as it is lost. There are many smaller red blood cells than normal and too little haemoglobin inside, causing small cell proliferation and hypochromia.
When red blood cells are destroyed, the haemoglobin from these cells is introduced into the monocyte-macrophage cells. The iron released and stored primarily in ferritin is used when needed for the formation of new haemoglobin.
Haemoglobin is unstable and irreversibly bound to oxygen molecules. This ability is related to respiration because the primary function of haemoglobin is to bind oxygen in the lungs and release them in peripheral tissue capillaries.