Lectures on pathophysiology

Lecture on Acid-Base balance disorder, Lecture on electrolyte water imbalance, Lecture on protide metabolism, Basic indicators of Acid-Base imbalance.

In the renal tubules: HCO3 А is filtered and then reabsorbed by an interaction

This reabsorption is initiated by an in-tubular reaction between the glomerular HCO3- and excreted by the tubular wall cell.

Origin of lymphocytes: the body's resistance to infection

For each last formed T or B function, the genetic makeup codes indicate only one specific antigen. The adult cells then become highly specific T and B cells that multiply and spread to the end of the lymphoid tissue.

T and B lymphocytes: antibodies that respond to specific antigens and shoulder in lymphocytes

Millions of types of B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes capable of forming highly specific types of antibodies or T cells have been stored in the lymphoid tissues, explained earlier.

Acquired immunity (adaptation): the body's resistance to infection

The acquired immunity is caused by a special immune system that forms antibodies and or activates lymphocytes to attack and destroy specific invasive microorganisms or toxins.

Immunity and allergies: the body's resistance to infection

Congenital immunity makes the human body resistant to diseases such as certain animal polio virus infections, swine fever, animal disease, and distemper disease.

Effects of Leukaemia on the body: metastasis of leukaemia cells

A common effect of leukaemia is the development of infection, severe anaemia, and platelet deficiency. These effects mainly result from the replacement of normal white blood cells with inactive leukaemia cells.

Leukaemia: an increase in the number of abnormal white blood cells

Two common types of Leukaemia: Lymphoid leukaemia is caused by an overproduction of lymphocytes, which usually begins in one lymph node or another lymphoid tissue and then spreads to other areas of the body.

Leukopenia: reduces the body's protection against many bacteria

For 2 days after the bone marrow stops producing white blood cells, ulcers may develop in the mouth and large intestine or in some people severe respiratory infections may develop. Bacteria from the sores quickly penetrate the tissue and blood.

Basophils (eosinophils): an important role in allergic reactions

Eosinophils and eosinophils play an important role in many types of allergic reactions because of the antibodies that induce allergic reactions, IgE has a special tendency to bind to mast cells and eosinophils

Eosinophils: combats parasitic and allergic infections

Eosinophils also tend to be particularly concentrated in tissues with an allergic reaction, such as in the peri-bronchial tissues in people with bronchial asthma and in the skin following an allergic skin reaction.

Process of reverse regulation of macrophage responses and polymorphonuclear leukocytes

When the neutrophils and the macrophages swallow most of the bacteria and necrotic tissue, basically all the neutrophils and the majority of the macrophages will eventually die

Inflammation: the response of macrophages and granulocytes

Macrophages are capable of phagocytosis with more bacteria (about 5 times) and larger particles, including granulocytes. Macrophages also play an important role in initiating antibody production.

Inflammatory process: the role of granulocytes and phagocytosis

Inflammation is characterized by dilation of local vessels, causing increased local blood flow; increased permeability of capillaries, allowing the leakage of large amounts of fluid into the interstitial space; often coagulate fluid in the interstitial space.

Monophageal system / endothelial retina system

The complete combination of monocytes, mobile macrophages, fixed tissue macrophages, and a few specialized endothelial cells in the bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes is called the endothelial retinal system

Phagocytosis: the function of granulocytes and macrophages

In addition to digesting bacteria ingested in the phagosome, neutrophils and macrophages also contain bactericidal agents that kill most bacteria even when lysosome enzymes cannot digest them.

Neutrophils and macrophages fight bacterial infections

Both granulocytes and macrophages are able to move through the tissue with an amoebic motion. Some cells travel at a speed of about 40 µm / ph, a great distance from their length per minute.

Leukocyte life: time in circulating blood and tissue

The life of leukocytes after leaving the bone marrow is usually 4-8 hours in circulating blood and about 4-5 days in the tissues that need them. In severe tissue infections, life is often shortened to only a few hours.

Leukocyte formation: the process of formation in the bone marrow

Leukocytes formed in the bone marrow are stored in the bone marrow until they are needed to enter the circulatory system. Then, when the need arises, various factors cause them to be released.

Types of white blood cells: six types of normal white blood cells are present

Six types of normal leukocytes are present in the blood: polymorphonuclear neutrophils, acid-loving polymorphonuclear leukocytes, basophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes, monocytes, lymphocytes, and sometimes cytoplasm.

Polycythaemia vera: affects circulatory system function

In polycythaemia vera, the amount of blood in this plexus is greatly increased. Furthermore, since blood flows slowly through the skin capillaries before entering the venous plexus, a larger amount of reduced haemoglobin is required.

Polycythaemia: an increase in the number of erythrocytes and haematocrit

Cells do not stop producing red blood cells when they have enough red blood cells. This causes an overproduction of red blood cells as in breast cancer an overproduction of a certain type of breast cell.

Anaemia: affects the function of the circulatory system

Increased cardiac output in people with partial anaemia compensates for the lack of oxygen due to anaemia because although each number of blood units carries only a small amount of oxygen, the blood flow can increase enough to an almost normal amount of oxygen. oxygen to the tissues.

Anaemia: a decrease in red blood cells or haemoglobin in cells

When chronic blood loss occurs, a person typically cannot absorb iron from the intestines to form haemoglobin as quickly as it is lost. There are many smaller red blood cells than normal and too little haemoglobin inside, causing small cell proliferation and hypochromia.

Iron metabolism: haemoglobin synthesis

When red blood cells are destroyed, the haemoglobin from these cells is introduced into the monocyte-macrophage cells. The iron released and stored primarily in ferritin is used when needed for the formation of new haemoglobin.

Haemoglobin synthesis: oxygen binding and CO2 excretion

Haemoglobin is unstable and irreversibly bound to oxygen molecules. This ability is related to respiration because the primary function of haemoglobin is to bind oxygen in the lungs and release them in peripheral tissue capillaries.

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In the renal tubules: HCO3 А is filtered and then reabsorbed by an interaction

Origin of lymphocytes: the body's resistance to infection

T and B lymphocytes: antibodies that respond to specific antigens and shoulder in lymphocytes

Acquired immunity (adaptation): the body's resistance to infection

Immunity and allergies: the body's resistance to infection

Effects of Leukaemia on the body: metastasis of leukaemia cells

Leukaemia: an increase in the number of abnormal white blood cells

Leukopenia: reduces the body's protection against many bacteria

Basophils (eosinophils): an important role in allergic reactions

Eosinophils: combats parasitic and allergic infections

Process of reverse regulation of macrophage responses and polymorphonuclear leukocytes

Inflammation: the response of macrophages and granulocytes

Inflammatory process: the role of granulocytes and phagocytosis

Monophageal system / endothelial retina system

Phagocytosis: the function of granulocytes and macrophages

Neutrophils and macrophages fight bacterial infections

Leukocyte life: time in circulating blood and tissue

Leukocyte formation: the process of formation in the bone marrow

Types of white blood cells: six types of normal white blood cells are present

Polycythaemia vera: affects circulatory system function

Polycythaemia: an increase in the number of erythrocytes and haematocrit

Anaemia: affects the function of the circulatory system

Anaemia: a decrease in red blood cells or haemoglobin in cells

Iron metabolism: haemoglobin synthesis

Haemoglobin synthesis: oxygen binding and CO2 excretion