Chronic kidney disease: often associated with irreversible impairment of kidney function

2021-05-06 02:52 PM

In general, chronic kidney disease, like acute kidney damage, can result from damage that starts in the renal vascular system, glomeruli, tubules, interstitial organization, or low urinary tract.

 

Chronic kidney disease is defined as kidney damage or impairment that persists for at least 3 months.

Chronic kidney disease is often associated with progression and irreversible loss of large numbers of functional nephrons.

Typical clinical symptoms do not usually occur until the number of functional nephrons falls below 70-75% of normal. In fact, blood electrolyte concentrations and body fluids can remain nearly normal until the number of functional nephrons falls below 20-25% of normal.

Board. Several causes of acute kidney damage to the kidneys

* Damage to small vessels and/or glomeruli

Vasculitis (inflammation of multiple nodules)

Cholesterol embolism

Malignant hypertension

Acute glomerulonephritis

* Tubular epithelial injury (tubular necrosis)

Acute tubular necrosis due to ischemia

Acute tubular necrosis caused by toxins (heavy metals, ethylene glycol, insecticides, poisonous fungi, carbon tetrachloride)

* Damage to the kidneys

Acute pyelonephritis

Interstitial nephritis due to acute allergies.

The table lists some of the main causes of chronic kidney disease. In general, chronic kidney disease, like acute kidney damage, can result from damage that starts in the renal vascular system, glomeruli, tubules, interstitial organization, or low urinary tract. Although there are a large number of non-kidney diseases that can lead to chronic kidney disease, the end result is the same - a decrease in the number of functional nephrons.

 

MOST VIEW

Pathophysiology of cardiogenic shock

Urine formation: Reabsorbed glomerular filtration

Air in and out of the lungs: pressure causes the movement of air

Mechanism of urine concentration: osmotic pressure changes in different segments of the renal tubule

Absorption and excretion of potassium through the kidneys

Prothrombin activation: initiates blood clotting

Pulmonary capillary dynamics: capillary fluid exchange and pulmonary interstitial fluid dynamics

Graphical analysis of high-volume heart failure

Estimated renal plasma flow: PAH clearance

Calculate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR): the forces that cause the filtration process

Reduced sodium chloride, dilates arterioles, increases Renin release.

Nephron: The functional unit of the kidney

Ammonia buffering system: excretes excess H + and creates new HCO3

Concentrated urine formation: urea contributes to increased osmotic pressure in the renal medullary

Red blood cells: differentiation and synthesis

The proximal tubule reabsorption: active and passive reabsorption

Extracellular fluid distribution between interstitial space and blood vessels

The endocrine regulates tubular reabsorption

Origin of lymphocytes: the body's resistance to infection

Acidosis causes a decrease in HCO3- / H + in renal tubular fluid: compensation mechanism of the kidney

Physiological anatomy of the kidneys and urinary system

Sodium channel blockers: decrease the reabsorption of sodium in the manifold

The kidneys excrete sodium and fluid: feedback regulates body fluids and arterial pressure

Self-regulation of glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow

Iron metabolism: haemoglobin synthesis