Ingredients of glomerular filtrate

2021-04-30 09:30 PM

Glomerular filtrate consists mainly of salts and organic molecules, similar to serum. With some exceptions, low molecular weight molecules such as calcium and fatty acids are not filtered freely.

The first step in the formation of urine is to filter large amounts of fluid through the glomerular capillaries in the Bowman's compartment - about 180 litres of fluid per day is filtered through the kidneys, but only about 1 litre of fluid is excreted. Most of this fluid is reabsorbed by the kidneys depending on the fluid. A high level of glomerular filtration requires a high rate of flow through the kidney, as well as the special properties of the membrane filter. In this chapter, we discuss factors that determine the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the regulation of GFR and renal blood flow.

Like most capillaries, glomerular capillaries are impermeable proteins, so the filtered fluid (called glomerular filtrate) has very little free protein and no cells, including red blood cells. Glomerular filtrate consists mainly of salts and organic molecules, similar to serum. With some exceptions, low molecular weight molecules such as calcium and fatty acids are not freely filtered because they are partially bound to plasma proteins. For example, near plasma calcium and most fatty acids are protein-bound and these attachments are not leached through the glomerular capillaries.

 

MOST VIEW

Pathophysiology of cardiogenic shock

Urine formation: Reabsorbed glomerular filtration

Air in and out of the lungs: pressure causes the movement of air

Mechanism of urine concentration: osmotic pressure changes in different segments of the renal tubule

Absorption and excretion of potassium through the kidneys

Prothrombin activation: initiates blood clotting

Pulmonary capillary dynamics: capillary fluid exchange and pulmonary interstitial fluid dynamics

Graphical analysis of high-volume heart failure

Calculate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR): the forces that cause the filtration process

Estimated renal plasma flow: PAH clearance

Nephron: The functional unit of the kidney

Reduced sodium chloride, dilates arterioles, increases Renin release.

Ammonia buffering system: excretes excess H + and creates new HCO3

Red blood cells: differentiation and synthesis

Concentrated urine formation: urea contributes to increased osmotic pressure in the renal medullary

Extracellular fluid distribution between interstitial space and blood vessels

The proximal tubule reabsorption: active and passive reabsorption

Origin of lymphocytes: the body's resistance to infection

The endocrine regulates tubular reabsorption

Acidosis causes a decrease in HCO3- / H + in renal tubular fluid: compensation mechanism of the kidney

Sodium channel blockers: decrease the reabsorption of sodium in the manifold

Physiological anatomy of the kidneys and urinary system

Self-regulation of glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow

Pathophysiology of fever

The kidneys excrete sodium and fluid: feedback regulates body fluids and arterial pressure