Physiological anatomy of the kidneys and urinary system

2021-04-30 09:06 PM

The middle surface of each kidney contains an area of ​​the umbilical cord, through which the kidney artery and veins, the lymphatic, supply the nerves and ureter, which carries urine eventually from the kidney to the bladder.

The kidneys are located on the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity, outside the peritoneum. Each adult kidney weighs about 150 grams and is about the size of a fist. The middle surface of each kidney contains an indented area called the umbilical cord through which the kidney artery and veins, the lymphatic, supply the nerves and ureter, which carries urine eventually from the kidney to the bladder, where It is stored until the bladder is empty. The kidneys are surrounded by sclerenchyma, protecting its delicate internal structures.

If the kidney is divided from top to bottom, the two main regions that can be visualized are the outer cortex and the inner medullary region. The marrow is divided into 8 to 10 conical masses called the pyramid. The base of each pyramid originates from the border between the shell and the marrow and ends at the papillae, shining into the space of the renal pelvis, a funnel-shaped connection of the upper end of the ureter. The outer contour of the pelvis is divided into open pockets called large calyxes that extend downwards and into small stations, which collect urine from the tubes of each papilla. The walls of the calyx, pelvis and ureter contain contractile elements that push urine toward the bladder, where urine is stored until it is emptied by urination.

Figure. Organization of the kidneys and urinary system.



Pathophysiology of cardiogenic shock

Urine formation: Reabsorbed glomerular filtration

Air in and out of the lungs: pressure causes the movement of air

Mechanism of urine concentration: osmotic pressure changes in different segments of the renal tubule

Absorption and excretion of potassium through the kidneys

Prothrombin activation: initiates blood clotting

Pulmonary capillary dynamics: capillary fluid exchange and pulmonary interstitial fluid dynamics

Graphical analysis of high-volume heart failure

Calculate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR): the forces that cause the filtration process

Estimated renal plasma flow: PAH clearance

Nephron: The functional unit of the kidney

Reduced sodium chloride, dilates arterioles, increases Renin release.

Ammonia buffering system: excretes excess H + and creates new HCO3

Red blood cells: differentiation and synthesis

Concentrated urine formation: urea contributes to increased osmotic pressure in the renal medullary

Extracellular fluid distribution between interstitial space and blood vessels

The proximal tubule reabsorption: active and passive reabsorption

Origin of lymphocytes: the body's resistance to infection

The endocrine regulates tubular reabsorption

Acidosis causes a decrease in HCO3- / H + in renal tubular fluid: compensation mechanism of the kidney

Sodium channel blockers: decrease the reabsorption of sodium in the manifold

Self-regulation of glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow

Pathophysiology of fever

The kidneys excrete sodium and fluid: feedback regulates body fluids and arterial pressure

Iron metabolism: haemoglobin synthesis