Quadriplegic Fallot: congenital heart disease with left right shunt

2021-04-29 04:42 PM

Most of the reduced blood passes through the lungs, so the arterial blood is mostly undoxified venous blood. In this condition, four cardiac abnormalities occur simultaneously.

The Fallot quadriplegic is shown in the figure; it is the most common cause of "cyanosis. Most of the decreased blood passes through the lungs, so the arterial blood is mostly undoxified venous blood. In this condition, four cardiac abnormalities occur." out simultaneously:

1. The aorta originates in the right ventricle rather than the left, or it presses a hole in the septum, receiving blood from both ventricles.

2. Because the pulmonary artery is blocked, the amount of blood flowing from the right ventricle to the lungs is much lower than normal; instead, most of the blood goes directly to the aorta.

3. Blood from the left ventricle flows through a ventricular opening into the right ventricle and then into the aorta or directly into the aorta to press on this hole.

4. Since the right side of the heart has to pump large amounts of blood to counteract the high pressure in the aorta, its muscular system is highly developed, causing right ventricular hypertrophy.


Pathophysiology of cardiogenic shock

Urine formation: Reabsorbed glomerular filtration

Air in and out of the lungs: pressure causes the movement of air

Mechanism of urine concentration: osmotic pressure changes in different segments of the renal tubule

Absorption and excretion of potassium through the kidneys

Prothrombin activation: initiates blood clotting

Pulmonary capillary dynamics: capillary fluid exchange and pulmonary interstitial fluid dynamics

Graphical analysis of high-volume heart failure

Estimated renal plasma flow: PAH clearance

Reduced sodium chloride, dilates arterioles, increases Renin release.

Calculate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR): the forces that cause the filtration process

Nephron: The functional unit of the kidney

Concentrated urine formation: urea contributes to increased osmotic pressure in the renal medullary

Red blood cells: differentiation and synthesis

Ammonia buffering system: excretes excess H + and creates new HCO3

Extracellular fluid distribution between interstitial space and blood vessels

The proximal tubule reabsorption: active and passive reabsorption

The endocrine regulates tubular reabsorption

Origin of lymphocytes: the body's resistance to infection

Physiological anatomy of the kidneys and urinary system

The kidneys excrete sodium and fluid: feedback regulates body fluids and arterial pressure

Iron metabolism: haemoglobin synthesis

Leukocyte formation: the process of formation in the bone marrow

Self-regulation of glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow

Sodium channel blockers: decrease the reabsorption of sodium in the manifold