Some important problems in biological pathology

2021-04-27 02:29 PM

Local and systemic: a local injury, caused by any etiological factor, ultimately affects the whole body.

The role of the etiological factor

The etiological factor plays a very important role in the course of the disease. The effect of the etiologic factor depends on:

Intensity: Some factors are normally harmless but too loud (sound, magnetic field) will become a pathogen.

Time: Injecting bacteria in small doses, repeated many times to cause the death of animals. Regular noise causes psychological stress, high blood pressure, and nervous breakdown.

Location: Gonorrhoea infects the cornea causing acute inflammation, infection in the genital tract causing chronic inflammation. So is TB.

The role of the calculated response in the pathogenesis

The reaction is the characteristic of the body in response to external stimuli. It manifests the relationship form between the body and the lips. Reaction calculation varies according to the individual. For the same aetiology, each person reacts differently (trauma, pneumonia).

Factors that easily affect the calculated reaction:

Age: "every age every disease" is a popular comment among the folk. Indeed, some diseases are typical of youth such as measles, pertussis, smallpox, ... cardiovascular diseases, cancer are common in old age.

Gender: Some common diseases in men such as gastroduodenal ulcer, myocardial infarction, lung cancer, ... Conversely, are common in women with cholecystitis, breast cancer, fibroids or uterine cancer, adnexitis, ... This is explained by differences in neuroendocrine activity or due to differences in work, activities, daily habits, ...

Neurocrine activity: clearly affects the reaction and thereby affects the pathogenesis. In experimental animals, when stimulating nerve stimulation (by caffeine or phénamin), the inflammatory response will be stronger in neurosuppressed animals (by bromur). In humans, during the times of hormonal changes such as puberty, perimenopause, ... often see mood changes and also react to the etiological factors.

Environmental factors: external environment affects the reaction by factors such as light, temperature, pressure, locality and especially nutrition, ... Light is too strong, high temperature causes nerves. easy excitement. The lack of food, especially the lack of protid, makes the response poor and easy to infect. Nowadays, people pay attention to the circadian rhythm of the body at times of day, month and year to put drugs into the body or to intervene in surgical intervention to be most effective.

Relationship between systemic and local in the pathogenesis

Whole-body and local: healthy whole body, local resistance will be good, so pathogenic factor will be difficult to penetrate or if any, it will be quickly removed. Local wounds will heal quickly if the patient is provided with adequate nutrients.

Local and systemic: a local injury, caused by any etiological factor, ultimately affects the whole body. So it is necessary to conceive that the local pathological process is the local manifestation of the general pathological state.

Pathological spiral and main stitch

During the development process, the disease usually progresses through many stages called sutures, which are consecutive in a certain sequence and closely related to each other. The front stitch is the premise, creating conditions for the next stitch to form and develop until the disease ends. It is the pathogenesis of these stages as well as the interaction between them. Especially important is that in many pathological processes, the following stages often react back to the previous stage, making the disease worse and worse, called the pathological spiral.


Figure: Pathological spiral diagram.

Thus, in the pathogenesis process, the original cause often causes certain consequences, these consequences become the cause of the new disorders and can lead to other consequences or effects. come back. The duty of the physician is to detect the main steps for proper treatment to prevent the twist or to cut the pathological spiral to eliminate disorders and restore function.


Pathophysiology of cardiogenic shock

Urine formation: Reabsorbed glomerular filtration

Air in and out of the lungs: pressure causes the movement of air

Mechanism of urine concentration: osmotic pressure changes in different segments of the renal tubule

Absorption and excretion of potassium through the kidneys

Prothrombin activation: initiates blood clotting

Pulmonary capillary dynamics: capillary fluid exchange and pulmonary interstitial fluid dynamics

Graphical analysis of high-volume heart failure

Calculate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR): the forces that cause the filtration process

Estimated renal plasma flow: PAH clearance

Nephron: The functional unit of the kidney

Reduced sodium chloride, dilates arterioles, increases Renin release.

Ammonia buffering system: excretes excess H + and creates new HCO3

Red blood cells: differentiation and synthesis

Concentrated urine formation: urea contributes to increased osmotic pressure in the renal medullary

Extracellular fluid distribution between interstitial space and blood vessels

The proximal tubule reabsorption: active and passive reabsorption

Origin of lymphocytes: the body's resistance to infection

The endocrine regulates tubular reabsorption

Acidosis causes a decrease in HCO3- / H + in renal tubular fluid: compensation mechanism of the kidney

Sodium channel blockers: decrease the reabsorption of sodium in the manifold

Physiological anatomy of the kidneys and urinary system

Self-regulation of glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow

Pathophysiology of fever

The kidneys excrete sodium and fluid: feedback regulates body fluids and arterial pressure