Thrombosis: risk of serious embolism

2021-02-08 12:00 AM

The cause of thrombosis is often the rough endothelial surface of the blood vessel, which can be caused by atherosclerosis, infection or trauma and the very slow flow of blood in the lumen.

Thrombosis and embolism

A blood clot that forms abnormally in the lumen is called a thrombus. When this clot develops, the continuous flow of blood will wash it away, the clot that flows freely like this will cause the embolism. If the embolism of the large artery or a blood clot from the left heart can go away and block the arteries or arterioles in the brain, kidneys, and elsewhere.

If the thrombus originates in the venous system or the right heart, it will usually float to the lungs, causing pulmonary artery obstruction.

Causes of thrombosis

The causes of blood clots in humans are: (1) The rough endothelial surface of blood vessels can be caused by atherosclerosis, infection or trauma (such as those that trigger blood clotting.), and (2) the very slow flow rate of blood in the lumen also often causes blood clotting when small amounts of thrombin and other clotting factors are always produced.

Use of t-PA to dissolve intravascular clots

When tPA is added to the clot area through the catheter, it activates plasminogen into plasmin, thereby dissolving the clot. For example, if tPA is used within the first hour or after a blood clot clogs a coronary artery, there is no serious damage to the heart.


Pathophysiology of cardiogenic shock

Urine formation: Reabsorbed glomerular filtration

Air in and out of the lungs: pressure causes the movement of air

Mechanism of urine concentration: osmotic pressure changes in different segments of the renal tubule

Absorption and excretion of potassium through the kidneys

Prothrombin activation: initiates blood clotting

Pulmonary capillary dynamics: capillary fluid exchange and pulmonary interstitial fluid dynamics

Graphical analysis of high-volume heart failure

Estimated renal plasma flow: PAH clearance

Reduced sodium chloride, dilates arterioles, increases Renin release.

Calculate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR): the forces that cause the filtration process

Nephron: The functional unit of the kidney

Concentrated urine formation: urea contributes to increased osmotic pressure in the renal medullary

Red blood cells: differentiation and synthesis

Ammonia buffering system: excretes excess H + and creates new HCO3

Extracellular fluid distribution between interstitial space and blood vessels

The proximal tubule reabsorption: active and passive reabsorption

The endocrine regulates tubular reabsorption

Origin of lymphocytes: the body's resistance to infection

Physiological anatomy of the kidneys and urinary system

The kidneys excrete sodium and fluid: feedback regulates body fluids and arterial pressure

Iron metabolism: haemoglobin synthesis

Sodium channel blockers: decrease the reabsorption of sodium in the manifold

Self-regulation of glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow

Leukocyte formation: the process of formation in the bone marrow