Medical microbiology lecture

Development history of microbiology, infectious diseases, bacteria, viruses, microorganisms, prevention, treatment direction, care and follow-up after treatment, compatibility of treatment regimens

Legionella pneumophila bacillus causes pneumonia

Legionella pneumophila is the cause of acute pneumonia and Pontiac fever. Bacteria from the surrounding environment enter people through the respiratory tract through inhalation of contaminated dust or steam.

The bacteria that cause tetanus

Clostridium bacteria are gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacilli. This bacterium is present in the soil, in the digestive tract of humans and animals.

Research the object of microbiology

Microorganisms include bacteria, yeasts, molds, algae, protozoa, and viruses. Before the discovery of microorganisms, people divided organisms into two kingdoms: the animal kingdom and the plant kingdom

History of the development of microbiology

Recently, techniques of gene synthesis and gene disassembly have made biotechnology a spearhead production force of the world economy

Current problems of medical microbiology

Since microbiology has matured until now, humans have been able to gradually conquer infections. But the way to conquer

Shape of bacteria

Cocci are clustered like bunches of grapes, divide in a plane, some are pathogenic to humans and often develop rapid resistance to many antibiotics

Structure of a bacterial cell

It can be seen with light microscopy after staining or with direct phase-contrast microscopy. The core can be spherical, rod-shaped, dumb-bell-shaped, or V-shaped

Physiology of bacteria

Most bacteria, if provided with all of these factors, are able to synthesize the structural substances of the cell. But some bacteria lose the ability to synthesize some compounds

Genetic transport in bacteria

Microbial evolution depends on variation and selection. It happens slowly when variation occurs due to the accumulation of successive variations in a species of organism

Inheritance of antibiotic resistance in bacteria

In resistance, antibiotics play a role of selection rather than a role. The widespread use of antibiotics leads to the rapid growth of resistant bacteria

Influence of physical factors on the growth of microorganisms

Microorganisms are influenced by the vibrational frequencies of the environment, which can stimulate or inhibit the growth of microorganisms and destroy microorganisms.

The influence of biological factors on the growth of microorganisms

During the existence of microorganisms, if they have to live in the presence of other microorganisms, they can compete for survival, be destroyed or coexist

Sterilization in medicine

In the microbiology laboratory, sterilization is an indispensable measure for the isolation, culture, and preservation of pure bacteria

Bacterial resistance to antibiotics

Many mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in bacteria have been investigated. In different strains of bacteria, resistance to an antibiotic may be due to one or more different mechanisms

Features of viruses

Viruses are infectious agents that can pass through bacterial filters, having a very simple structure. A virus is a nucleoprotein macromolecule that has the basic properties smallest of an organism

Antibiotics and bacteria

Antibiotics have different activities, some have broad antibacterial spectrum, some have narrow antibacterial spectrum

Classification of viruses in medical microbiology

According to the current classification, human and vertebrate viruses are divided into 22 different families: 8 families of viruses containing DNA and 14 families of viruses containing RNA

Virus replication

Viruses do not have a metabolism, are not capable of replicating themselves outside of living cells. So viral replication can only be done in living cells

Consequences of viral replication in cells

After the virus enters and multiplies in the cell, most of the cells are destroyed. Because the normal activities of the cell are inhibited, the substances necessary for the cell

Viral pathogenicity

Viral infections do not manifest, viral infections have no symptoms, the virus stays in the body for a short time and is eliminated quickly

Viral culture in medical microbiology

Depending on the virus species, it can use different receptors such as suckling mice, mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, monkeys

Relationship between Bacteriophage and host bacteria

The morphology of these phages under the electron microscope looks like that of sperm with a head and a tail

Applications of Bacteriophage in medicine

Phage is used to determine phage-type in bacteria. Each bacterial species can include many different types of phages due to the nature of the bacterial receptor for different phages

Prevention and treatment of viral diseases with specific immunotherapy

The above measures make a significant contribution to solving the viral disease, but the implementation requires a lot of effort and money

Prevention and treatment of viral diseases with chemotherapy

Unlike bacteria, viruses are obligate parasites inside living cells, they have no metabolism, and viral replication is entirely within the host cell.