Medical microbiology lecture
Legionella pneumophila is the cause of acute pneumonia and Pontiac fever. Bacteria from the surrounding environment enter people through the respiratory tract through inhalation of contaminated dust or steam.
Clostridium bacteria are gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacilli. This bacterium is present in the soil, in the digestive tract of humans and animals.
Microorganisms include bacteria, yeasts, molds, algae, protozoa, and viruses. Before the discovery of microorganisms, people divided organisms into two kingdoms: the animal kingdom and the plant kingdom
Recently, techniques of gene synthesis and gene disassembly have made biotechnology a spearhead production force of the world economy
Since microbiology has matured until now, humans have been able to gradually conquer infections. But the way to conquer
Cocci are clustered like bunches of grapes, divide in a plane, some are pathogenic to humans and often develop rapid resistance to many antibiotics
It can be seen with light microscopy after staining or with direct phase-contrast microscopy. The core can be spherical, rod-shaped, dumb-bell-shaped, or V-shaped
Most bacteria, if provided with all of these factors, are able to synthesize the structural substances of the cell. But some bacteria lose the ability to synthesize some compounds
Microbial evolution depends on variation and selection. It happens slowly when variation occurs due to the accumulation of successive variations in a species of organism
In resistance, antibiotics play a role of selection rather than a role. The widespread use of antibiotics leads to the rapid growth of resistant bacteria
Microorganisms are influenced by the vibrational frequencies of the environment, which can stimulate or inhibit the growth of microorganisms and destroy microorganisms.
During the existence of microorganisms, if they have to live in the presence of other microorganisms, they can compete for survival, be destroyed or coexist
In the microbiology laboratory, sterilization is an indispensable measure for the isolation, culture, and preservation of pure bacteria
Many mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in bacteria have been investigated. In different strains of bacteria, resistance to an antibiotic may be due to one or more different mechanisms
Viruses are infectious agents that can pass through bacterial filters, having a very simple structure. A virus is a nucleoprotein macromolecule that has the basic properties smallest of an organism
Antibiotics have different activities, some have broad antibacterial spectrum, some have narrow antibacterial spectrum
According to the current classification, human and vertebrate viruses are divided into 22 different families: 8 families of viruses containing DNA and 14 families of viruses containing RNA
Viruses do not have a metabolism, are not capable of replicating themselves outside of living cells. So viral replication can only be done in living cells
After the virus enters and multiplies in the cell, most of the cells are destroyed. Because the normal activities of the cell are inhibited, the substances necessary for the cell
Viral infections do not manifest, viral infections have no symptoms, the virus stays in the body for a short time and is eliminated quickly
Depending on the virus species, it can use different receptors such as suckling mice, mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, monkeys
The morphology of these phages under the electron microscope looks like that of sperm with a head and a tail
Phage is used to determine phage-type in bacteria. Each bacterial species can include many different types of phages due to the nature of the bacterial receptor for different phages
The above measures make a significant contribution to solving the viral disease, but the implementation requires a lot of effort and money
Unlike bacteria, viruses are obligate parasites inside living cells, they have no metabolism, and viral replication is entirely within the host cell.