Bacteria that cause gangrene

2021-08-18 09:36 PM

Bacteria are bacilli-shaped, non-motile with shells when growing in animals and humans, spore-forming bacteria when growing in the natural environment

Clostridium-like bacteria are gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacilli. This bacterium is present in the soil, in the digestive tract of humans and animals, most of them are saprophytic bacteria, decomposing organic matter in some soil.

Clostridia pathogens include.

Clostridium tetani cause tetanus.

Clostridia cause gangrene.

Clostridium botulinum causes botulism.

Clostridium difficile causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis.

This is a group of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria, similar in appearance, in terms of causing infection, wound infection, and gangrene, these bacteria also play a role in appendicitis, peritonitis. , septic abortion... Bacteria such as Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium novyi, Clostridium septicum are considered the main bacteria causing common diseases.

Disease-causing bacteria

Clostridium perfringens

Bacterial characteristics

Bacteria are bacilli-shaped, non-motile with shells when growing in animals and humans, spore-forming bacteria when growing in the natural environment, they become gram-colored but in old cultures, bacteria can discolor gram.

Clostridium perfringens grows on anaerobic cultures at a temperature of 37 0 C, making the medium turbid, on anaerobic agar the bacteria produce gas and crack the agar.

Based on the ability to produce toxins, people divide this type into 6 types A, B, C, D, E, F, in which type A causes gangrene infection in the wound, type C causes necrotizing enterocolitis, and other types. Other types were found to cause disease in animals.

Bacterial toxins and enzymes

Clostridium perfringens produces many toxins, most of which are different enzymes, different types produce different toxins, for example, type A produces the following notable toxins:

Alpha toxin (µ toxin) is a phospholipase C, which hydrolyzes lecithine-containing tissues, destroys red blood cells, causes necrosis of soft tissue, experimentally shows that this toxin has an effect on myocardial function, causing hypotension pressure, bradycardia, increased vascular permeability, and shock, often fatal in gangrene.

Theta toxin ( qqtoxin) has erythrocytic effects under anaerobic and cytolytic conditions.

This toxin Mu (µ toxin) is a hyaluronidase enzyme that breaks down the hyaluronic acid of the connective tissue.

Toxins kappa ( kktoxin) has the enzymatic activity of collagenase degrade collagen affiliates.

Enterotoxin is a protein that causes diarrhea in food poisoning.

Clostridium novyi

This bacterium has 4 types of toxins A, B, C, D. of which type A causes disease in humans, and other types cause disease in animals. Clostridium novyi produces many toxins, such as type A that produces alpha ( µ), gamma (γ), delta ( ), epsilon (ε) toxins, the effects of these toxins are similar to those of Clostridium perfringens.

Clostridium septicum

This bacterium has a toxin type, this bacterium produces 4  strong toxins: µtoxinbtoxindtoxintoxin,   these toxins cause tissue necrosis and hemolysis.

Gastric gangrene

Bacteria penetrate into damaged tissue with many foreign bodies, deep and nooks, and crannies. The most common are the wounds caused by war, caused by firearms with suitable conditions for bacteria to grow and cause tissue necrosis.

The incubation period is usually short 1-3 days, pain symptoms appear early and increase rapidly, in the injured tissue area, there is edema and swelling, there may be oozing fluid, and the skin is damaged. stretch becomes pale gray or green like dead skin color, feels slightly crunchy to the touch, the bloody discharge has a sour smell, the patient's whole-body condition is indicative of severe toxicity without treatment. heart failure, kidney failure.

Laboratory diagnostics

Laboratory diagnosis is often slow, less useful, diagnosis is mainly clinical.

In the laboratory, a direct gram stain of hemorrhagic fluid from the wound is done, and at the same time, culture for bacteria on an anaerobic medium.

Prevention and treatment

Use antitoxin to prevent disease in patients with broken wounds.

Treat the wound appropriately early by cutting and cleaning the crushed tissue, removing dirt and foreign objects.

Treatment is with antitoxin sera against gangrene and bactericidal antibiotics.