History of the development of microbiology
Recently, techniques of gene synthesis and gene disassembly have made biotechnology a spearhead production force of the world economy
The discovery of microorganisms
The discovery of microorganisms is closely associated with the invention of the microscope. Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632 - 1723) Dutch, was the first person in the seventeenth century to see microorganisms thanks to the 270-300 times magnification microscope he built (1676). Due to the limitations of the microscope's magnification and resolution, microscopic studies of living organisms were very limited, and it was not until the early 19th century that the first complete microscope was born. Since then, humans have in turn created a series of different types of optical microscopes, and many new important events have been discovered.
The maturation of microbiology
During the seventeenth century and throughout the eighteenth century microbiology focused only on description, but there are also some outstanding works such as Spallanzani using heat-sterilized culture media, Edward Jenner inventing the pea vaccine. season, Zinke discovered the agent of rabies in the saliva of rabid dogs.
The new nineteenth century saw great developments in microbiology thanks to the work of Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch.
L. Pasteur (1822 - 1895) completed the study of microorganisms. Microorganisms are not only accurately described but also fully investigated for their physiological properties.
L.Pasteur is a great microbiologist who is credited with:
- End the autogenic debate with brilliant experiments with gooseneck flasks.
- Detecting the agents of fermentation such as alcoholic fermentation, rotten fermentation are microorganisms: the growing microorganisms have formed enzymes responsible for the fermentation phenomenon.
- Determining the pathogenic role of microorganisms in infectious diseases
- Generalizing the issue of vaccines and finding methods to prepare some preventive vaccines such as anthrax vaccine, chicken cholera vaccine... and invent rabies vaccine.
R.Koch (1843 - 1910) made great contributions to microbiology thanks to the works:
- Development of techniques for immobilization and staining of bacteria.
- Use a solid medium to isolate net bacteria.
State the criteria for defining infectious diseases.
- Discover tuberculosis bacteria, cholera bacteria.
Thanks to the merits of L.Pasteur, R.Koch, and many other scientists, most of the bacteria causing diseases in humans and animals were discovered in the early twentieth century. At that time, microbiology had become an important applied science in the fields of medicine, agriculture, and industry.
In clinical practice, the infectious disease department was established to receive infected patients, and the surgical department used the antiseptic surgical method, the premise of today's sterile surgical method.
In recent decades, from applied science, microbiology has become a fundamental science giving rise to a new science: molecular and submolecular biology and among other sciences. created a modern scientific and technical revolution.
Thanks to the understanding of modern genetics, the research model of E.coli, Watson, and Crick discovered the structural pattern of DNA and the semi-conservative replication mechanism underlying the formation of molecular biology. and submolecular. Marvelous discoveries about the structure of the genetic code and other structures of living cells served as the basis for the development of the biological industry, an industry that allowed humans to interfere in the formation process. and the development of organisms to serve human interests.
Recently, the techniques of gene synthesis and gene disassembly have made biotechnology a spearhead production force of the world economy. In the field of medicine, these techniques have great promise to solve genetic diseases, prevent infections, and cancer.