Mumps virus

2021-08-16 05:53 PM

Mumps can have some common complications in adults such as orchitis, ovarian inflammation, pancreatitis... Cases of encephalitis

This family of viruses is a group of agents that differ in their pathogenicity, distribution in the animal kingdom, and in their biology.

These viruses are very close in shape and structure to the Orthomyxoviridae family, but they have different properties such as size from 150 to 700 nm, RNA with molecular weight from 5 to 7,106 daltons, small coiled nucleocapsid with sugar 12 to 18 nm in diameter, the frequent presence of a cell-binding protein (which induces syncytosis), the persistence of antigens...

The family Paramyxoviridae is divided into 3 genera:

Paramyxovirus: parainfluenza virus and mumps virus.

Morbillivirus: measles virus.

Pneumovirus: respiratory syncytial virus.

The properties of the virus

The size of the mumps virus varies from 85 to 340 nm, the shape is diverse but it can also be thread-shaped. The chemical composition is similar to that of Paramyxoviruses, it can agglutinate erythrocytes of chickens, guinea pigs... and adsorb erythrocytes on infected cells in cell cultures or in the amniotic fluid of infected chicken embryos. infected. Mumps virus replicates well in chicken embryos.

The mumps virus has three antigens:

The S antigen is a nucleoprotein.

The V antigen is produced from the envelope. It is erythrocyte agglutination antigen and Neuraminidase.

Allergic antigen: This antigen enhances type-specific sensitization when injected intramuscularly with infected body skin with fluid from the amniotic cavity and the stroma of infected chicken embryos.

Possibility to cause disease in humans

Mumps is an acute, contagious, and epidemic disease caused by the mumps virus.

The typical form of the disease has an incubation period of about 2-3 weeks. Initially, the patient felt uncomfortable, slightly afraid of the wind, headache, and fever gradually increased. This is the most contagious period, but diagnosing the disease right away is very difficult. The next day, I found chewing, swallowing awkwardly, pain in front of the ear. Then one side of the parotid gland began to swell and hurt and then spread to the other side 2-3 days later. Mostly bilateral swelling, but unilateral swelling is also common. Other salivary glands may also become inflamed (submandibular, sublingual). The patient has a fever of 390C - 400C for 3 - 4 days. Most of the diseases go away after 8-10 days.

Mumps can have a number of common complications in adults such as orchitis, ovarian inflammation, pancreatitis... Cases of encephalitis, meningitis - encephalitis are very rare, but if present, they are very serious. and possibly death.

Mumps is present year-round, children are susceptible and adults who have not been infected can still be infected. The only source of the disease is people. The disease is transmitted directly through the respiratory tract. Mumps leaves a long-lasting immune state, rarely encountering someone who gets infected a second time.

Laboratory diagnostics

Virus isolation

Specimens are saliva inoculated into chicken embryos or into cultures of monkey kidney cells, Hela, and human amniotic cells. Virus identification by erythrocyte agglutination inhibition and neutralization with sample serum.

Serum reaction

Usually, the complement combination reaction and the erythrocyte agglutination inhibitor reaction are used.

Prevention and treatment

Prevention

Isolate the patient. Use gamma globulin. Use dead or live attenuated vaccines.

Treatment

There is no specific drug: mainly to take care of the patient, avoid traveling a lot when there is a complication of orchitis.