Medical Pathology

Autoimmune pathology, Obesity pathology, Goiter alone, Glomerulopathy, Primary hyperaldosteronism.

Kidney pathology and pregnancy

In pregnant women, a blood creatinine level above 80 μmol per liter and a blood urea concentration above 5 mmol per liter may indicate a decrease in renal function during pregnancy.

Chronic Inflammation

Causes of chronic inflammation include the following:  Following a bout of acute inflammation · Persistent infections

Acute Inflammation

Acute inflammation is an immediate response to injury or infection, which is part of innate immunity.


Oedema is the presence of excess fluid in the intercellular space. It has many causes.

Overview of Pathology

The study of the essential nature of the disease, including symptoms/signs, pathogenesis, complications, and morphologic consequences including structural and functional alterations in cells, tissues, and organs

Causes of Cellular Injury

Hypoxia is the most common cause of the injury; it occurs when lack of oxygen prevents the cell from synthesizing sufficient ATP by aerobic oxidation.

Cellular Changes During Injury

Cellular responses to injury include adaptation (hypertrophy or atrophy, hyperplasia or metaplasia), reversible injury, and irreversible injury and cell death (necrosis, apoptosis, or necroptosis).

Cell Death

Morphologic types of necrosis (cell death in living tissue, often with an inflammatory response) are as follows:

Cellular Adaptive Responses to Injury

In general, cellular adaptation is a potentially reversible change in response to the environment.

Other Cellular Alterations During Injury

Lipids that can accumulate intracellularly include triglycerides (e.g., fatty change in liver cells), cholesterol (e.g., atherosclerosis, xanthomas), and complex lipids (e.g., sphingolipid accumulation).

Tissue Responses to Infectious Agents

Infectious diseases are very prevalent worldwide and are a major cause of morbidity and mortality.

Regeneration and Healing

Regeneration and healing of damaged cells and tissues start almost as soon as the inflammatory process begins.

Aberrations in Wound Healing

Delayed wound healing may be seen in wounds complicated by foreign bodies, infection, ischemia, diabetes, malnutrition, scurvy, etc.


Carcinogenesis is a multistep process, and the development of all human cancers appears to require the accumulation of multiple genetic changes.

Hemostasis and Bleeding Disorders

Hemostasis is a sequence of events leading to the cessation of bleeding by the formation of a stable fibrin-platelet hemostatic plug.


Thrombosis is the pathologic formation of an intravascular fibrin-platelet thrombus during life.


An embolism is any intravascular mass that has been carried down the bloodstream from its site of origin, resulting in the occlusion of a vessel.


Infarction is a localized area of necrosis secondary to ischemia. Common sites of infarction include the heart, brain, lungs, intestines, kidneys. Infarcts have multiple causes.


Shock is characterized by vascular collapse and widespread hypoperfusion of cells and tissue due to reduced blood volume, cardiac output, or vascular tone.

Disorders Involving an Extra Autosome

The most common karyotype is 47, XX, +21. Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal disorders.

Disorders Involving Chromosomal Deletions

Cri du chat syndrome is due to a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5.

Disorders Involving Sex Chromosomes

Klinefelter syndrome is caused by meiotic nondisjunction and is a common cause of male hypogonadism. Turner syndrome is a common cause of female hypogonadism.

Disorders of Sexual Development (DSD)

Determination of sex can be established by a variety of methods that do not necessarily completely agree.

Mendelian Disorders

Mendelian disorders are characterized by single-gene mutations.

Autosomal Recessive Disorders

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common lethal genetic disorder in Caucasians.