Arteriosclerosis

2021-02-23 12:00 AM

Mönckeberg medial calcific sclerosis is a medial calcification of medium-sized(muscular) arteries, such as femoral, tibial, radial, and ulnar arteries.

ARTERIOSCLEROSIS

Mönckeberg medial calcific sclerosis is a medial calcification of medium-sized(muscular) arteries, such as femoral, tibial, radial, and ulnar arteries. It is asymptomatic but may be detected by x-ray.

Arteriolosclerosis refers to the sclerosis of arterioles; it affects small arteries and arterioles. Microscopically, either hyaline arteriolosclerosis (pink, glassy arterial wall thickening with luminal narrowing seen in benign hypertension, diabetes, and ageing) or hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis (smooth-muscle proliferation resulting in concentric [“onion skin”] wall thickening and luminal narrowing is seen in malignant hypertension) may occur.

Atherosclerosis is a common vascular disorder characterized by lipid deposition and intimal thickening of large and medium-sized (elastic and muscular) arteries, resulting in fatty streaks and atheromatous plaques over a period of decades (a type of chronic inflammatory condition). Particularly likely to be affected are the aorta and a number of important muscular arteries (coronary, carotid, cerebral, renal, iliac, and popliteal arteries).

Risk factors for atherosclerosis are as follows:


 

  • The earliest (clinically reversible) stage in atherosclerosis is the fatty streak, which is seen grossly as a flat, yellow intimal streak and is characterized microscopically by lipid-laden macrophages (foam cells).
  •  Stable atheromatous plaques have a dense fibrous cap, a small lipid core and less inflammation than their vulnerable counterparts. They cause chronic ischemia.

Vulnerable atheromatous plaques are at risk for rupture, thrombosis or embolization due to their composition (thin fibrous cap, large lipid core, dense inflammation).

Clinical complications of atherosclerosis are protean; these complications include ischemic heart disease (myocardial infarctions); cerebrovascular accidents (CVA); atheroemboli (transient ischemic attacks [TIAs] and renal infarcts); aneurysm formation; peripheral vascular disease; and mesenteric artery occlusion.