Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney

2021-02-23 12:00 AM

Bilateral agenesis is incompatible with life. Ultrasound shows oligohydramnios.

CONGENITAL ANOMALIES OF THE KIDNEY

Renal agenesis

  • Bilateral agenesis is incompatible with life. Ultrasound shows oligohydramnios.
  •  Affected fetuses typically also have Potter facies (flattened nose, posteriorly rotated ears, and recessed chin); talipes equinovarus (talus [ankle]+ pes [foot] and equino [heel] + varus [turned upward] = clubfoot); and pulmonary hypo-plasia.
  •  In unilateral agenesis, the remaining kidney undergoes compensatory hypertrophy. Patients often have an adequate renal function and are asymptomatic.

Hypoplasia is the failure of a kidney (usually unilateral) to develop to normal weight; the hypoplastic kidney has a decreased number of calyces and lobes.

Horseshoe kidney is a common congenital anomaly that is found in 1 in 600 abdominal x-rays. The kidneys show fusion, usually at the lower pole; affected individuals have a normal renal function but may be predisposed to renal calculi.

Abnormal locations. The most common abnormal location is the pelvic kidney. The ectopic kidney usually has normal function. Tortuosity of ureters may predispose to pyelonephritis.