Localized Types of Amyloid

2021-02-24 12:00 AM

Senile cerebral amyloidosis (Alzheimer disease) has Aβtype amyloid with fibrillary protein composed of β-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP).

LOCALIZED TYPES OF AMYLOID

Senile cerebral amyloidosis (Alzheimer disease) has Aβtype amyloid with fibrillary protein composed of β-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP). It is found in Alzheimer plaques and in cerebral vessels. The gene for βAPP is located on chromosome 21.

Senile cardiac/systemic amyloidosis has ATTR type amyloid with fibrillary protein composed of transthyretin. This type of amyloidosis is seen in men older than 70 years and may cause heart failure as a result of restrictive/infiltrative cardiomyopathy. Four per cent of African Americans have a transthyretin (TTR) V1221 mutation with 1% being homozygous, serving as a risk for cardiac disease.

Endocrine type amyloidosis is seen in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (procalcitonin), adult-onset diabetes (amylin), and pancreatic islet cell tumours (amylin).