Secondary glomerular diseases are kidney conditions with glomerular pathology in which an underlying cause can be established.
Glomerulonephritis is a term referring to direct injury of the glomeruli with resulting disturbances of normal glomerular function, progressively leading to renal failure. Glomerular diseases are classified as primary, where glomerular damage is the prime disturbance, with extrarenal manifestations as a result of renal impairment, and secondary, following systemic disorders, infections, or exposure to certain drugs. Although noteworthy progress has been made in the past years in an asymptomatic and specific treatment, therapy of both primary and secondary glomerulonephritis can be challenging. Management of these patients requires early diagnosis, expert knowledge of the immunosuppressive agents and other drugs currently available for the treatment of each glomerulonephritis, consideration of possible adverse reactions to these drugs, alternative therapeutic strategies in cases of hyporesponsiveness or non-responsiveness of the patient to the treatment, and possible relapses of the disease. Glomerulonephritis is grouped according to the presence or absence of proliferative histological alternations into primary and secondary proliferative and non-proliferative types.
Secondary glomerular diseases are kidney conditions with glomerular pathology in which an underlying cause can be established. Worldwide, they are the most common forms of glomerulonephritis (GN), mostly caused by infections and particularly prevalent in developing countries.
Diabetes causes nodular glomerulosclerosis, hyaline arteriolosclerosis, and diabetic microangiopathy. Clinically, diabetic patients may develop microalbuminuria that can progress to nephrotic syndrome.
Systemic lupus erythematosus can cause various patterns of damage to the kidney with clinical features that can include hematuria, nephrotic syndrome, nephrotic syndrome, hypertension, and renal failure.