Acid-base fluid balance and renal function in neonates

2021-06-09 01:51 PM

The metabolic rate in infants is also twice that of adults when compared to body weight, which means that more acid is normally formed, creating a tendency for acidosis in infants.

The ratio of oral fluid intake and excretion in neonates is 7 times that of adults compared to body weight, which means that even small changes in fluid intake or excretion can result in can cause rapid development of disorders.

The metabolic rate in infants is also twice that of adults when compared to body weight, which means that more acid is normally formed, creating a tendency for acidosis in infants. For example, the kidneys of neonates can concentrate urine to only 1.5 times the osmolality of plasma, while in adults, urine can concentrate 3 to 4 times the osmolality of plasma. Thus, considering the immature kidneys, together with the vigorous fluid exchange in neonates and rapid acid formation, it is easy to understand that the most important problems of the neonate are acidosis, dehydration. and more rarely, fluid retention.