Body protection and reproduction
The immune system has roles in differentiating the body's cells from foreign cells and substances; destroy them by macrophages or produce specific lymphocytes and proteins or neutralize antigens.
The immune system includes white blood cells, leukocyte-derived tissue cells, the thymus, lymph nodes, and lymphatic vessels. They protect the body from pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi. The immune system has the following important roles: ( 1) distinguishing the body's cells from foreign cells and substances; (2) destroy them by macrophages or produce specific lymphocytes and proteins (such as antibodies) or neutralize antigens.
The skin makes up about 12-15 % of body weight. Skin and its dependent components (including hair, nails, glands, and other structures) envelop, cushion, and protect tissues and organs deep within the body, creating boundaries between thermoregulation. Body temperature balance is also an important factor of homeostasis. Through the secretion of sweat, the skin can participate in body temperature regulation, in addition, some ions such as Na + or lead are also excreted through the skin and mucous membranes.
Normally, reproduction is not considered to play a role in homeostasis. however, this process indirectly helps the homeostasis by creating new living structures to replace ageing and dead structures. The explanation that sounds like an acceptance of this process is also a homeostatic phenomenon, but it is the most obvious illustration. After all, essentially all bodily structures are organized so that they help maintain the automaticity and continuity of life.