Hygiene lessons during pregnancy
Attention should be paid to keep the body clean. Every day should shower with clean water. Cold season need to bathe with warm water, avoid cold baths that can cause colds, causing eclampsia
Pregnancy is an unstable physiological state, easy to switch to pathology. During pregnancy, a woman's resistance decreases, and a number of diseases are possible. Therefore, if the normal time to keep certain hygiene things, when pregnant, it is necessary to perform more hygienic fun.
Clothing must be loose and airy, avoiding tight fitting. Belts, elastic socks, nipples need to be extended.
In the cold season to wear warm enough. Wear thin and airy in hot season.
Do not wear high heels, because it may fall, which can cause the uterus to shift first. Should wear low shoes and sandals.
Should wear a bra to raise the heavy breasts to not sag, but must wear a wide bra that do not tighten the chest, causing difficulty breathing.
Avoid vigorous sports, use a lot of strength, make the mother work hard, cause difficulty breathing.
Morning exercise should be done with gentle movements and deep breathing exercises. If you do not have a practice routine, you should go for a morning walk for 5-10 minutes. Should sunbathe in the morning.
The problem goes away
Should avoid going away by car, motorbike, bicycle in the first 3 months of pregnancy, this period is prone to miscarriage.
From the 4th month to the 7th month, travel by train, car, or plane is possible. Limit travel from 8 months.
Attention should be paid to keep the body clean. Every day should shower with clean water. Cold season need to bathe with warm water, avoid cold baths that can cause colds, eclampsia. Do not bathe for too long and should not be immersed in water (bath water, river bath, pond ...). It is best to bathe by rinsing with water.
After urinating, going out, it is necessary to clean the vulva and anus. Every day, it is also necessary to wash the genitals with clean water and sanitizing solution (Da Huong hygiene solution, etc.), dry, change underwear regularly.
Pay attention to take care of the breasts during pregnancy by cleaning the two nipples to remove the hate scales, rubbing the breasts to soften. After drying the nipples, you can add glycerin or smoothie ointment.
During pregnancy must have moderate and gentle intercourse. Should abstain completely in the last two months.
While pregnant, it is still possible to work normally, avoid heavy labor such as carrying, carrying, heavy duty, need to have rest, especially for those who have continuous contractions or have had miscarriages. premature birth. Should take a month off work before the expected date of birth to improve health and gain weight for both mother and baby.
During pregnancy, a woman must eat for herself and for the baby. If the mother is poorly nourished, the mother is susceptible to disease, the baby may be premature, underweight, and after giving birth, the mother often lacks breast milk.
So, during pregnancy, the mother must eat more food and the quality of food must be guaranteed. Food should contain meat, fish, shrimp, milk, eggs, beans, peanuts, sesame, oil, lots of fresh vegetables and fruits. Limit drinking alcohol, coffee, and not smoking.
Every year, worldwide, more than 550,000 pregnant mothers die from various reasons. Bacterial infection is the second leading cause of maternal death at birth. Bacterial infections are even more serious and serious in countries facing many economic difficulties. Furthermore, this is an avoidable cause of death. There are many cases, just because of a minor defect in sterility that leads to unfortunate deaths. Although there are many new very good antibiotics, sterility is getting more and more attention. It can be said that most of the infections in obstetrics are caused by physicians. Sterility is a very fundamental problem. Practicing aseptic is doing preventive medicine. Investing in aseptic work is of the highest benefit. Sterility in obstetrics has its own characteristics.
Several obstetric features have been linked to sterility
During pregnancy, the mother's immune response tends to decrease to allow the fetus to exist favorably in the mother's body. That is the positive side of the matter. But that makes the mother's body more susceptible to pathogens. The mother's resistance will be reduced if there is a lot of blood loss before, during and after childbirth.
During labor and postpartum, the enlarged cervix creates favorable conditions for pathogens to enter the uterus. Penetration into the uterus is more convenient if an infection is present in the vagina, if there are interventions that do not guarantee sterility into the uterine cavity. From the uterine cavity, pathogens can spread through the lymphatic or blood lines. In particular, the grass pathogen can spread along two oviducts, enter the peritoneum, causing peritoneal infection.
The area of clingy vegetables after peeling vegetables is an extremely wide gateway for pathogens to directly penetrate the mother's circulation, causing the most severe form of infection with a high mortality rate, which is sepsis.
The remaining organs in the uterus such as vegetables, the fetal organization are the favorable environment for bacteria to grow, from which the infection spreads.
In obstetrics, lower line procedures always carry a high risk of infection, especially those that directly interfere with the uterus through the vagina.
The above is some of the favorable conditions for infection to occur in obstetrics. Those are also the reasons that aseptic is so important. All medical staff working in the obstetric and obstetric profession must be aware of the importance of sterility and must strictly adhere to the principles of sterility while working.
Mechanism of infection for patients
While in hospital, patients always face many risks of infection. Infection to patients can be done through the following ways:
Infections from outside: Pathogens from the outside environment (air, water, dust ...) enter the patient's body. Closer to home, pathogens from clothing, medical tools (needles, syringes, knives, scissors, gloves ...) are not well disinfected.
Cross-infection in hospital: Pathogens are spread from one patient to another through daily living utensils, through medical equipment that are not well sanitized, through unclean hands of Medical staff ... In many cases, if you do not follow the aseptic regulations well, it is the medical staff who helps carry germs from one patient to another.
Self-infection: Pathogens that are readily available on the patient's body, for example, when urinating without good disinfection, can cause bladder infection with bacteria already on the patient.
For medical staff
The first thing to be aware of is the importance of implementing sterility in daily work. Work clothes must be clean, always cleaned. Every surgical procedure must wear a proper hat and mask. Hats must cover all hair; masks must cover both mouth and nose. The nails are always cut short. Hand washing is very important. Wash hands to prevent the transfer of pathogens to uncontaminated areas by removing most microorganisms from the hands of hospital staff. Hand washing is the simplest and most important technique to prevent infection in the hospital. Note before washing hands need to remove watches and all jewelry worn on hands.
Wash your hands normally with soap and clean water, and dry after washing. Hand washing is normally performed before giving the patient a medication, between care that does not require sterility, before eating, after exiting the toilet ...
Hand washing with antiseptic is performed for everyone before leaving the workplace, after working with fabrics, dirty objects, before any sterile care, after one care of infection ...
Surgical hand washing is applied to all people involved in surgery or some procedures such as opening of the endotracheal tube, exposing the veins, and placing the umbilical venous catheter.
For pregnant women
Pregnant women play a decisive role. Pregnant women must adhere to the hygiene rules during pregnancy, do not wash in ponds, lakes, dirty water. Perform daily cleaning of the external genitals, especially after urinating. We always remember that during pregnancy, pregnant women are susceptible to vaginal infections and urinary tract infections. In many cases, the clinical manifestation of the infection is atypical or the clinical manifestation is absent. These infections need to be diagnosed and treated early, to avoid long-term causing serious consequences. In addition, it is necessary to improve the systemic resistance with a nutritious diet, supplement with iron to avoid anemia.
Women should be washed thoroughly before giving birth. The external genitals need to be shaved and cleaned. All pregnant women are allowed to have an enema before entering the delivery room, except in upcoming cases. After cleaning, should make a sterile loincloth. During the monitoring of labor, to minimize the internal visit, each time the inner visit must wear sterile gloves, before the examination. It is advisable to arrange an isolated delivery room for pregnant women suffering from infectious diseases.
After giving birth
After giving birth, pregnant women should exercise early, avoid lying down for long time to create conditions for dead-end fluid and bacterial infection. The perineal layer is cleaned several times a day (no less than 2 times) with clean water, blot dry after washing. After each defecation or urination, they are washed and blotted dry. Pregnant women can clean themselves. Clothes are changed and washed. The breasts need to be wiped clean, breastfed early and breast-by-breast to avoid breast complications.
For vehicles and tools
It should be located in a high, clean, high place, away from sources of pollution, with means to effectively avoid dust (1g of dust contains 1,500,000 bacteria). The area is large enough, the inside should not display too many things that make it difficult to clean. Floors must be tiled for easy cleaning. The floor should be cleaned 2 times a day, wiped wet, not brushed. Wet wiping is a quick, effective, and hygienic way to get rid of dust. The ceiling is cleaned once a quarter. The walls are cleaned every month. Clean footwear is required to wear separately in the delivery room. Under our conditions, the maternity and maternity are not allowed in the room. The delivery tables should be separated from each other. After each delivery, the laboratories clean the table, the basin to collect fluid and blood must be poured out immediately.
Adequate water supply to a hospital or medical facility means that water meets safety standards and is sufficiently available for patient care and other hospital operations to maintain a safe hospital environment and limit the spread of diseases. In obstetrics, the demand for water is even greater. It is estimated that each hospital bed needs an average of 300 to 350 liters of water per day.
All tools must be disinfected, sterilized according to the specifications for immediate use or stored in sealed containers in a place without dust. Cleaning tools is the first important step in the sterilization and sterilization process because it removes all dust and dirt. Without proper cleaning, sterilization and sterilization will not yield results. The dirt on tools is a refuge for bacteria to avoid contact with antiseptic chemicals, and at the same time reduce the activation of disinfectants. Sterilization is performed on instruments that are in contact with the membrane (respiratory apparatus), non-sterile tools such as endoscopes and non-sterile instruments (potty, ducks). Sterilization is applied to all objects that are placed in direct contact with blood or sterile areas of the body, and some tools are inserted into non-sterile compartments such as milk bottles, breast bottles or bandages. There are many methods of sterilization and sterilization, so it is necessary to choose the appropriate method for each type of instrument.
The sterilization and sterilization work should be monitored by bacterial culture. Tools that have been sterilized but have not been used out of date must still be re-sterilized. The autoclave and baby food prepared in a hospital must be checked with routine bacterial cultures. The autoclave should have a color indicator to show that the device has passed the autoclave cycle (sulfur powder, color indicator tape ...) For milk randomly selected 1 ml in the prepared batch. to submit for testing. The number of bacteria counted at the acceptable level is 25 / ml. When the number of bacteria exceeds the acceptable level, it is necessary to review the preparation technique.
In short, the thoroughly aseptic practice has helped us to avoid unfortunate infections and ensure safety in treatment.