Lecture on HIV and AIDS counseling for pregnant women

2021-03-21 12:00 AM

Since the discovery of the causative agent of AIDS until now, only a few drugs have been found to slow down the growth of the virus.

General perception

Counseling is a two-way communication process between the consultant and the counselor, in which the counselor helps the consulted understand clearly the issues they are interested in, determine their own needs, decide on solutions, have appropriate and correct attitudes and actions to their circumstances and problems. Counselling is not about teaching, advising, but a process in which the counselor discovers and helps the counselor understand their circumstances, feelings, emotions, and thoughts to help them learn. your own abilities and needs, and confidence in yourself to be able to determine how to solve the problem on your own.

HIV / AIDS counseling (including general counseling on HIV / AIDS and counseling for people infected / suspected of being infected with HIV) is a focus of HIV / AIDS prevention. This is a special kind of counseling that deals with many aspects of human life, from physical status, psychology and social relationships. It includes providing essential and essential knowledge about HIV / AIDS and how to prevent it, and assisting counseled people to overcome potential stigma and crises with behavior change for a better life. quality for oneself and at the same time to prevent infection to others (in the family and society).

The importance of HIV / AIDS counseling

Since the discovery of the causative agent of AIDS until now, only a few drugs have been found to slow down the growth of the virus but cannot cure HIV infection, so prevention is still playing an essential role. weak.

Although some vaccines are being tested, none have been shown to be effective in the prevention of HIV / AIDS infection. Most of the drugs and vaccines mentioned above are very expensive and cannot be widely used in the community. However, this deadly disease can be effectively prevented by changing the behavior and attitudes of community members.

Unlike many other infectious diseases, people infected with HIV have a long incubation period. During that incubation period, they have no clinical manifestations and are able to function normally (including sexual activity) and can therefore pass the disease on to many others. Therefore, they need to be consulted on how to avoid infecting those around them who come into contact with them.

Due to the severe nature and consequences of the disease, people infected with HIV / AIDS may experience various negative reactions such as madness, frustration, indifference, pessimism, depression, fear, even hatred for society. They also risk being alienated, separated from society and discriminated against, even by their immediate family members. While some negative actions such as hatred and letting go can have a negative impact on public health, other psychological effects can reduce or even destroy the quality of life for them and their families. surname. These people all need to have access to the necessary information to be able to continue living with this disease in a beneficial way for society.

Thus, the impact of changing attitudes and behaviors in a positive direction through advocacy work plays an essential role in HIV / AIDS prevention, prevention as well as improvement. quality of life for them and their families. This communication can be carried out in a variety of ways, from educational information through mass media channels to through separate consultation. Different from media education, separate counseling not only provides general information to the person being consulted, but also focuses on their needs, requirements and personal circumstances to help them make their choices. right for myself.

The purpose of HIV / AIDS counseling

Provide information necessary to provide psychological and social support to the person being consulted:

Help the counselor know how to prevent illness for themselves (HIV prevention if not infected, OI if infected).

Helping the person to be mentally stabilized, confident in self-determination, self-determination and overcoming unnecessary crises, panic and fear in life.

Provide the person with information about their rights and support them to continue living in the community.

Provide consulted persons with information about available services and facilities as well as help them access them for economic, social and especially medical support when available. need to overcome difficulties and maintain health for myself.

Preventing HIV / AIDS transmission in the community:

Help the counselor know the ways of HIV transmission, understand behaviors with a high risk of HIV infection, thereby change behavior towards a positive direction (risk reduction) to prevent HIV transmission. for yourself, for others in your family and in the community where you live. Changing risky behavior is the only effective measure to prevent HIV transmission. The determination of each individual and individual in changing risky behavior plays a decisive role in the prevention of HIV / AIDS.

Persons receiving HIV / AIDS counseling

For the reasons mentioned above, general counseling on HIV / AIDS, counseling on behavior change to reduce the risk of HIV transmission is necessary for all types of people. We need to take advantage of every opportunity to give HIV / AIDS counseling to everyone in need, especially in the field of health services. Currently in our country, the situation of HIV / AIDS infection is increasingly widespread with the number of people infected with HIV / AIDS increasing. This epidemic is not only confined to high-risk groups (such as drugs, prostitution), but also tends to spread to those once considered low-risk, thus advising and encouraging research. Solutions are essential for the following objects:

People are concerned that they might get HIV / AIDS for some reason.

People who voluntarily test for HIV.

People who engage in high-risk behaviors (such as drug injection, prostitution, indiscriminate sex).

Sexually transmitted diseases.

Sexual partner / partner of an HIV-infected person.

Blood donors.

Patients with suspected AIDS (typical signs of opportunistic infection).

The caregivers of the patient have a risky accident such as being stabbed with a needle, a knife or a sharp object, causing bleeding.

Pregnant women, suspected of being infected, are at high risk.

Particularly for pregnant women, pregnant women or lactating women, HIV / AIDS is not only transmitted through sexual activities (such as sex work, indiscriminate activities) and blood sugar (such as injecting drugs). , blood transfusion is not safe) but can also be transmitted from mother to child, for longer and more severe consequences. Therefore, counseling and testing for this group of subjects also has its own characteristics.

Rights of counselors

Right of access

Everyone has the right to access counseling and other medical and social support services.

Right to be safe

When a service is selected (regardless of whether it is social or medical), the counseled has the right to safely receive it. The service must not harm the recipient.

Right to be informed

Counselors have the right to be fully informed about the subject of interest.

Regulation EN selected

Counselors have the right to choose (voluntarily) their own behavior change as well as the services available to them.

Right to privacy

Counselors must ensure that an atmosphere of confidentiality and trust is created for the counseled so that they can disclose them and that only the relevant people have access to information about them personally throughout the counseling process.

Regulation EN -Kept Secrets

In order to be a good consultant, the counselor must have personal information about the person being consulted. This personal information given by the consultant himself is only used for the purpose of improving the quality of the consultation and should not be provided to others or used for other purposes without consent. the consultant's opinion.

Right to be respected

Counselors are not allowed to discriminate, have no disdain, disdain, criticize or condemn (based on personal information given by the counselor), but must respect the person being advisory. This is especially important for the HIV / AIDS counseling environment because of the nature of information that can be discussed.

Regulation EN enjoying amenities

Counseling should be provided in a comprehensive, quality manner, without causing inconvenience or harm to the person being consulted.

Regulation EN been ti the matching words continue

Counselors have the right to return to continuing counseling when they feel it is necessary, there are still questions to clarify ...

Right to comment

The counselor must be given the opportunity to express his or her own opinion, which must be respected and discussed specifically between the counselor and the counselor.


The quality needed by a consultant

Must have an understanding of HIV / AIDS in order to be able to fully and accurately inform, explain and guide the consulted on issues of concern to them.

Mentoring skills are required in the communication process (see counseling skills section).

Must know empathy, put yourself in the role of the counselor to sympathize with them.

Must be persistent, equal, objectively and sensitive about the counsel's issues to be able to help them fairly.

There must be a positive outlook towards life and people.

The duty of the consultant

Help the counselor understand HIV / AIDS and the ways of transmission.

Provide enough information that the counselor wants so that they can fully understand their situation (including the meaning of tests - if any) and are ready to respond positively with that situation.

Advocate and help counselors determine correct actions, avoid high-risk behaviours to self-prevent and keep health for themselves, their families and the community.

Always put the consultant's interests at the center.

Keep the counselor's private information confidential (including test results, if any).

Always respect all rights of the counselor.

Consulting skills


The subject's skills to read and understand non-verbal language to learn their feelings and emotions. During contact, it is necessary to observe: dress for each contact, expressions of facial expressions, gestures, tones, words or special reactions when speaking, presenting or hearing a certain problem.

Listen to :

The skill of concentrating on the object, not being influenced by external circumstances or one's own thoughts to be able to perceive and learn the messages that the exposed object wants to say through words, directly or implicitly. Italy.

While listening to a target, the counselor should:

Create a comfortable, trusting atmosphere so that the subject can express his or her emotional thoughts.

Accept all information given by the subject, not respond immediately, whether it is correct or not.

Do not interrupt or appear impatient, urging the subject.

Always encourage the subject (in both words and gestures, facial expressions) to speak his mind and present his / her point of view.

Interested in:

The skill of directing oneself mentally towards the subject in order to satisfy their needs. The counselor must always pay attention to the issues that the counselor is interested in / looking for.

During the communication process, the counsellor must always show the subjects that they are deeply interested in them not only through words but also by gestures, attitudes, eyes, facial expressions and to participate actively and take deep care of the counsellor and their situation, and at the same time encourage and encourage the counsellor to express personal information and their views.

Ask questions:

Questioning skills play a very important role in HIV / AIDS counseling. The consultant must ask the question in a clear, concise, and easy-to-understand way so that the audience can understand. The question must be posed delicately in order to obtain the necessary information, including about many factors of personal privacy but still be polite, respectful to the subject, to avoid hurting them or feeling. be criticized and criticized. Directing the object to the heart of the problem, it is necessary to use guiding questions, suggesting the necessary topics to clarify the problem as well as facilitate the counsellor to express their thoughts. .

In question types, the use of closed questions (questions to answer "yes" or "no" or very short answers) in counselling should be avoided, as these questions do not facilitate the consultation process. for the subjects to think deeply, to provide all necessary information as well as not to choose the wide choice of the consulted. This questionnaire should only be used to confirm the information the subject has just stated (in the form "... is it? ...).

Guiding questions (eg "what about/about the problem ... what about?" Or "can you tell more about the problem ...?) Can be used in the consultation process. To clarify an issue, further discussion, in-depth can also be used to bridge the subject from the topic under discussion to a more specific, interesting subject. , instead of interrupting and suddenly changing the subject.

The question type that should be most used in the game is open-ended questions (eg "... how?" Or "why ...?". It gives the consultant a free space to provide the most complete information, regardless of the questioner, not limited. allow them to think for themselves, seek filial piety and express their thoughts in the order and importance of information according to their own preferences.

Again :

This is a skill used to show interest in the subject (through correctly repeating the information they have provided to them). The counsellor can also repeat these contents in his own language to confirm that he understands correctly, expresses more clearly what the counsellor means, and emphasizes that content.


Summarizing the content in a concise and easy-to-understand way helps the subject to grasp the main and basic matches discussed. This is usually done at the end of the theme / preparatory consultant (bridging) the topic or the consultation afterwards.

Encouragement, encouragement, comfort

Counsellors must always show the attitude of encouraging the subjects so that they are reinforced to believe in themselves, feel comfortable in providing information as well as confidence in acting. This is important when preparing the person being counseled to familiarize themselves with their situation, as well as encouraging them to voluntarily make changes in their behavior. Counsellors feel you believe they will overcome obstacles and take control of their own lives. Should encourage the good things they have done. However, they should not criticize and criticize what they do not right away, but gradually show them that they can do it in a better way.

Other skills

Using words: although the counsellor must have a good understanding of the expertise (HIV / AIDS) in the counselling process, the counsellor must, depending on the cultural level of the subjects, use the words appropriately to Clearly explain to them the necessary issues using common language, avoid using expert words.

Qualification: the consultant must know his or her own responsibilities, but must quickly define the limitations of his or her expertise in order to send the audience (to the higher professional or higher-level staff). for them to be consulted more in case the counsellor is not able to answer them.

Adaption to the circumstances: the counsellor's questions and advice must be given appropriately to the specific circumstances, the person's cultural level, local language and customs. , their religion to be persuasive, easily accepted to that community.