Lectures on adolescent reproductive health

2021-03-22 12:00 AM

Having unprotected sex and being at risk of sexually transmitted diseases among teenagers is a concern of the community.

Outline

Adolescents are people who are after adolescence and before adulthood. This is a transitional but important one in human life. This period has many psychological and physiological changes, initially forming a personality and marking a stage of great development from the family-scale, they initially join the social community, join the collective together. age groups and skills development. With separate physiological characteristics, they want to assert that they should easily change their personalities and behaviors. This change and development depend very much on the national customs and habits of the countries that in each country, each ethnic group has many factors affecting the development.

In 1998, the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) agreed to classify young men and women into three categories: adolescents (adolescent 10-19 years old, youth 15-24 years old, young people 10-24 years old. With this definition, adolescents (VTN) make up 20% of the world's population.

Adolescents are divided into 3 stages (or 3 groups):

Early adolescence: 10-14 years old.

Average adolescent: from 15 - 17 years old.

Late adolescence: from 18-19 years old.

Adolescent physical and psychological changes 

Physical change

 

Female

male

1. First change

- Starting from 8-13 years old.

- Average of 15 years old.

- Completion of 13-18 years old.

- Expression:

 + From the small nipples that protrude more clearly and form areola and breasts.

 + Maybe one breast is slightly larger than the opposite, that is a normal phenomenon.

 + Breasts develop fully after 18 months.

Development of the testicles:

- Starting from 10-15 years old.

- Completed year 15-18 years old

- Expression:

  Testicular enlargement.

  Red scrotum, many wrinkles.

+ Increase the size of the spermatogenesis tubes.

+ The change of cells on the tubes of spermatogenesis.

Start sperm production.

 2. Pelvic frame

The female pelvis is rounder and wider than men's.

 

3. Develops pubic and armpit hair system.

Pubic hair grows through 5 stages:

+ Feathers.

+ The hair starts to grow straight.

The hair starts to be curly and grows back.

+ The hair grows out: 5-6 months.

+ Completely grows to the groin but not beyond the pubic arch, this time lasts 18 months.

- Attention: If the hair grows beyond the pubic arch or up to the navel, it is necessary to see if it is masculine? Sometimes it's genetic.

- Appearance: 10-15 years old.

- The dark, coarse pubic hair curls up and rises up the abdomen.

- Armpit hair: grows like pubic hair.

- Beard: initially grows at the corner of the lips and spreads over the upper lip, then the upper part of the cheeks, and the lower lip, below the chin. The amount of facial hair is inherited.

4. Growth in height and weight.

- Starting from 10-11 years old.

- Peak 12-13 years old.

- Ending 14-15 years old.

- After 18 years old: little height growth.

- Only grows faster than the body of the body.

- The increase in weight is not proportional to the height.

- When the genitals start to develop, the height develops faster.

- Men develop the most, height can increase from 8-13cm.

Breast and breast development.

- Stiff muscles.

- The arm muscles are developing solidly.

5. Change in voice.

 The voice is clearer and lighter, the voice is clearer

- Early change: voice rupture appears before the first ejaculation.

- The voice becomes low after the armpit hair, pubic hair, and height are fully developed.

6. Operation of the sebaceous glands

Androgen secretion activity for both men and women, resulting in:

+ Increases skin thickness.

+ Stimulates the sebaceous glands to develop.

+ The sebaceous glands are closed and swollen to form fish eggs.

+ If infected acne forms pustules.

+ Pustules and acne worry them, the more they squeeze, the more susceptible they are to infection.

+ Release a characteristic odor for each individual.

7. Complete the development of genital organs.

Pussy

- Children facing first, now from top to bottom.

- Skin discolored darker.

- Standing posture only visible pubic part in the anterior part.

- Baby lips and clitoris hyperpigmentation.

- Baby lips develop.

Vagina

- Bigger, thicker wall.

- The environment gradually changes from alkaline to acidic.

· Uterus

- Bigger, thicker wall.

- Body and cervical ratio also changed.

 Children: The cervix and the body are equal in length.

 + Adolescent: body 2 times longer than cervix.

The ovaries are large, 3.5cm long, 2cm wide, 1cm thick.

Each side has about 500,000 original cysts.

- Each month there is 1 mature follicle and ovule.

- Adult testicles are 4.5cm long and 2.5cm wide

- The scrotum wrinkles more and becomes darker.

- The penis begins to develop at the age of 10.5-14 years and completes from 12.5-16.5 years old. However, the development of the penis depends on the human race and ethnicity.

Physiological changes in adolescence

Female:

Exocrine activity: usually 1 oocyst develops to maturity every month, after 2 weeks the follicle ruptures (oocysts release), the capsule shell develops into the corpus luteum.

Endocrine activity: Oestrogen oocysts. The corpus luteum secretes progesterone.

In the first year or so: the menstrual cycle usually has no ovulation, so menstruation is irregular, and menstruation time also changes.

Men:

Exocrine activities:

The sperm produced from the spermatogenesis tube becomes pre-spermatozoa, passing through the crest into mature sperm.

Sperm is gathered in seminal vesicles.

Endocrine activity:

Testicle secretion of testosterone.

The seminal vesicles and prostate produce the liquid portion of the spermatozoa.

Expression of ejaculation, the first time is dream ejaculation (ejaculation during sleep).

Sperm is produced continuously.

Psychological changes in adolescence

In addition to physical and physiological changes, this age may have psychological changes that are shown as follows:

Independence:

Begins tend to be detached, less dependent on parents.

Switch from family activities to friends and belief activities to achieve independence.

Sometimes opposing parents: This is an area that needs attention but must be persistent, flexible, and flexible in order to avoid self-esteem and emotional damage.

Personality:

Try to assert yourself as an adult so there are behaviors that imitate adults.

Often ask yourself: Who am I? What can we do?

Gender personality has also been developed.

Emotion:

Prepare for a loving relationship: friendship emerges, it is difficult to distinguish what is love and what is a friend. Daydreaming is easy. When beliefs break down, it is easy to get bored.

Learn how to show emotions and manipulate emotions.

Develop the ability to love and be loved.

Show intimacy in relationships with others.

Integration:

Information gathered from parents, schools, society, friends, middlemen, and cultural activities are the basis for creating personal values ​​to create confidence and behavior.

Wisdom:

Continuously developed from income and accumulation of school and social knowledge to change thinking. adolescents often like to reason and deduce seeing things from the idealized point of view. This special stage of development is strongly influenced by the cultural, educational, and economic conditions of the family and social environment, and is also a time of great concern for parents and forgiving. community. The adolescent age in each culture has its own characteristics, but in general, it also reveals the dependence, personality crisis, and psychological confusion that, as many people have commented, they are wanting to explore. who am I? Although adolescents are physically mature, adolescents must also be helped and educated to form a social personality and develop in the right direction.

Health risks from pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases

Teenage sexual behavior is often uncontrolled and often leads to unwanted pregnancies. Due to incomplete body development, adolescent pregnancies are associated with a number of serious consequences for sexual health such as abortion, miscarriage, low birth weight, preterm birth, and a small pregnancy. gestational age, maternal death.

It is adolescent pregnancy that heavily affects physical and psychological development as well as intellectual development in the future.

Unsafe sex with the risk of sexually transmitted diseases among teenagers is a concern of the community (gonorrhoea, syphilis, HIV ...).

The social and economic consequences of adolescent pregnancy and childbirth include:

Limiting the ability to study or drop out of school leads to reduced chances of finding a good job or giving up motherhood, sometimes killing a newborn or pessimistic suicide, becoming a prostitute ... Economic conditions Difficulty affects the quality of life of both mother and child.

The State has to pay direct social and medical allowances to deal with difficulties for mothers and children.

Increasing population growth.

Take care of reproductive health

Communicational and educational information

Respond to information needs and services minors need to know.

Determine the social and family responsible attitudes toward adolescents.

Emphasis is placed on the program design that involves adolescents and the community.

Ensuring the confidentiality of information, solving psychological problems, awareness as well as practical needs in life.

Counseling must ensure non-judgmental, focusing on understanding the risk factors of some conditions such as smoking addiction, suicide, unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases ...

Counseling and education must help adolescents choose contraceptive methods themselves when well informed: hormonal contraception, condoms or abstinence from sexual intercourse.

The purpose of sex education

Harmony between personal interests and social responsibility.

Build a humane and equal relationship between men and women.

Healthy love.

Content of ommunicational and educational information

Adolescents need to receive health advice in order to have a better understanding of their psychology and their psychosexual development. Those guidelines must emphasize strategies to improve health and reduce risk.

Education on adolescent gender, sexual and reproductive health.

The risks of adolescent pregnancy.

Provides information on unwanted contraception and unsafe abortion.

Provide information and ways to prevent sexually transmitted diseases.

Disseminate hygiene of menstruation and hygiene of the genitals.

The dangers of infertility.

Explain the risks of drug addiction.

Explain false rumors about underage.

Summary of adolescent development

Great power

Early (10-14 years old)

Average (15-17 years old)

Late (18-19 years old)

Secondary genitalia arises and develops.

- The magnitude increases rapidly to the highest point.

- Enlargement and sperm production.

- Secondary genital development.

- The magnitude decreases gradually and reaches about 95% of the adult level

- Ejaculation and spermatogenesis

- The body is mature

Most girls have periods.

- Young male is sexually mature.

Awareness

Think about specific things.

- There is an orientation of existence

- Not aware of long-term jobs.

- Think more abstract.

Return to a specific mindset when under pressure.

- Consider the long term

- Have formed abstract thinking.

- Looking to the future

- Awareness of long-term direction.

Psychosocial

- Thinking carefully because the body grows so fast.

- Pay much attention to the development of the body.

- Define the boundaries of independence and dependence.

- Beautiful human image.

- Expanding and idealizing

- Feeling omnipotent.

- Conflict, conflict.

- Restraint and patience.

- Determine the formation of personal intelligence

- Transform the parent-child relationship into an adult-adult relationship.

Family

- Compare yourself with friends of the same age.

- Looking for stability.

Identify needs to assert yourself.

- The same age group determines manners.

- The same age group has gradually regressed.

Individual friendship with individual development.

Thinking

- Self-progress and self-assessment.

- Curious to know.

- Self-study.

- King of romantic dreams.

- The ability to attract others.

- Form strong relationships to help each other.

- 2-way relationship.

- Think about your plans for the future.