Eye disease associated with autoimmune disease

2021-02-02 12:00 AM

Rheumatoid arthritis often causes damage to the tissues containing collagen, especially adrenalitis, scleritis.

The eyes are closely related to the other organs of the body. Many systemic diseases with eye manifestations and many eye conditions may be signs of systemic illness.

For many patients, eye exam not only allows the detection of eye lesions caused by systemic disease, but also helps to confirm diagnosis, prognosis or evaluate the results of systemic treatment.

Autoimmune disease results from the body's response to the body's normal tissue antigen, resulting in tissue damage. Some of the common autoimmune diseases present in the eye are:

Myasthenia gravis

Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease that damages neuromuscular conduction. The disease can affect the muscles of the whole body, but the eyes often show early signs of double vision and drooping (unstable, more often in the afternoon), the lashes often fall when required. patient looking up for a long time, may be accompanied by paralysis of the ocular motor muscles (paralysis of nerves III, IV, and VI).

Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome

This syndrome includes systemic symptoms such as fever, headache, hearing damage, graying of the hair and eyelashes, hair loss, and vitiligo with an anterior eye disease known as uveitis ( Vogt-Koyanagi) or posterior serosa retinal detachment (Harada). Cerebrospinal fluid tests can show increased cells and proteins. The disease is considered a slow hypersensitivity to melanin-containing structures of the body (eyes, skin, hair).

Systemic lupus erythematosus

Systemic lupus erythematosus is a disease that can cause multiple damages to the eye structures such as eyelids (erythema, vasodilation, inflammation of the eyelids), conjunctiva (cystitis, sometimes necrosis), the cornea (disc keratitis, dry eyes), scleritis, uveitis, neuritis, retinal artery obstruction, paralysis of the optic nerve.

Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis often causes damage to collagen-rich tissues, especially adrenalitis, scleritis, parenchymal keratitis, perioral corneal resorption, and uveitis.

Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (Still's disease)

Still, the disease causes mild to severe uveitis. Often there are no subjective symptoms and conjunctival erection is unknown, so it is easily overlooked. Prolonged progression can lead to cataracts, glaucoma.

Spondylitis

The disease is common in men. The most common manifestation in the eye is acute eyelid iritis, which may be accompanied by scleritis.

Beh├žet's disease

Typical signs are oral mucosal ulcers (glaucoma), genital ulcers, recurrent iritis-ciliary inflammation with anterior purulent. There may be vitiligo, retinal vasculitis.

Reiter's disease

The disease is more common in men. The main signs in the early stages are urethritis, arthritis, and conjunctivitis. Relapses may include scleritis, keratitis, and uveitis.

Sjogren’s syndrome

This syndrome is manifested by the trio of dry eyes, dry mouth, and rheumatoid arthritis.