Eye disease associated with neuropathy

2021-02-02 12:00 AM

Systemic causes can cause pupil reflex disorders. The most common pupil signs are Claude-Bernard-Horner syndrome and Argyll-Robertson pupil.

The eyes are closely related to the other organs of the body. Many systemic diseases with eye manifestations and many eye conditions may be signs of systemic illness.

For many patients, eye exam not only allows the detection of eye lesions caused by systemic disease, but also helps to confirm diagnosis, prognosis or evaluate the results of systemic treatment.

The eye is closely related to the brain, can be considered as an extension of the brain through the way from the optic nerve through visual interference, visual resolution, optic rays, to the occipital cortex. Intracranial pathological processes often compress the visual pathways, the motor nerves and the pupil motor nerve, causing eye symptoms. Each stage of motor or optic nerve can be damaged due to many different causes.

Nervous vision

Neuropathy can be damaged by a variety of etiologies: demyelination diseases (most commonly scattered sclerosis), inflammatory and systemic infections (tuberculosis, syphilis, etc.) or phosphorus. paralysis (meningitis, sinuses, orbit), viral diseases, intoxication (alcohol, tobacco, some systemic drugs), metabolic and nutritional diseases, vascular disease, tumor compression, trauma, etc. The above causes can cause the following neurological diseases:

Neuropathy: usually in one eye, sharp and sudden loss of vision, pupil reflex (direct and consensus) decreases with light in the diseased eye, papillary edema (eruption of the optic disc, blurred margin, may hemorrhage next to the spine), central point.

Edema spikes: agglutination, edema, fuzzy edge of spines, varicose veins, hemorrhage around the papillae. The most common cause is increased intracranial pressure (tumor compression), in addition spiny edema can be seen in advanced high blood pressure, pseudo brain tumour. Unlike papillary edema in neuritis, popular edema is usually in the two eyes, vision decreases later,

Nerve atrophy: caused by damage to the nerve, visual interference, or visual resolution. Damage to the nerve fibers and glial cells causes the disc to become pale or white.

Visual interference

Visual interference can be compressed by intracranial tumours (most commonly pituitary tumors, pharyngeal tumors, pituitary meningiomas, and gliomas), sometimes by aneurysms or processes. inflammation. Squeezing at the visual intersection often causes semi-limbs. At an early stage, semi-fragile is incomplete and vision may not be affected. More compression and signs of increased intracranial pressure may develop spiny edema. Late stage will see the papillae discolored or completely atrophy leading to blindness. May be accompanied by paralysis of the eye (VI cord paralysis common) or pituitary dysfunction.

Visual line after the intersection

The damage to the visual tract after interfering to the occipital cortex is often caused by cerebrovascular disease and brain tumour. In addition, it can be caused by trauma, abscesses, and dynamic-venous anomalies. The typical sign is homosexuality, vision is usually unaffected, late stage can see atrophy.

Brain damage from these causes can also affect the eyeball motor nerves. Paralysis (complete) nerve number III causes double vision, eyes peek out and cannot see inward, droopy eyelids dilated pupils and loss of reflexes. Nerve paralysis of IV causes vertical double vision (a tall one low figure), the patient is much uncomfortable when looking downwards, the head can tilt to the side of the eye that is not paralyzed to avoid double vision. Nerve paralysis of VI causes horizontal double vision (two horizontal shapes), the eyes squint in and cannot see out.

Damage to the pupil

Systemic causes can cause pupil reflex disorders. The most common pupil signs are Claude-Bernard-Horner syndrome and Argyll-Robertson pupil.

Claude-Bernard-Horner Syndrome

Sympathetic nerve damage in different locations: the central part (from the hypothalamus to the upper spinal cord), the pre-lymph node (spinal cord to the upper cervical lymph node), and the posterior part (from the upper cervical lymph node to the clump disturbances and dendrites of the V1 nerve entering the eye socket) can affect the sympathetic fibers governing Muller muscle and dilated pupil causing Claude-Bernard-Horner syndrome with trisomy: single pupil eyes, slight eyelid drooping, and reduced sweating on the side of the face and neck.

Argyll Robertson pupil

Argyll Robertson pupil is usually caused by neurosyphilis, with signs of pupil shrinkage unevenly (usually on both sides) and loss of reflection to light but still a close-up reflex. It is very difficult to dilate the pupils with medicine.