Eye disease associated with viral disease

2021-02-02 12:00 AM

The shingles virus (H. zoster) mainly causes disease in the elderly and people with reduced immunity. The first manifestation is mild fever, lymphadenopathy, increasing pain and appearance of blisters on the forehead.

The eyes are closely related to the other organs of the body. Many systemic diseases with eye manifestations and many eye conditions may be signs of systemic illness.

For many patients, eye exam not only allows the detection of eye lesions caused by systemic disease, but also helps to confirm diagnosis, prognosis or evaluate the results of systemic treatment.

The viruses that most commonly cause eye disease are the herpes virus family (H. simplex andzoster, cytomegalovirus) and adenovirus. In addition, some viral diseases such as measles, chickenpox, pertussis, mumps can also cause eye damage.

Herpes disease

The herpes virus is very common in humans. H. simplex type 1 usually causes eye and face disease, H. simplex type 2 causes genital herpes. Primary herpes infection is common in children from 6 months to under 5 years old. Presented by low fever, blistering appears on the skin around the eyes. Eye damage is often worse due to re-infection of herpes. Damage to the eye is mainly in the anterior part of the eyeball, including:

Conjunctivitis or superficial dot keratitis.

Branched corneal ulcer: shallow lesions on the cornea, fluorescein stained with staining like twigs or amoeba, accompanied by loss of corneal sensation.

Mapping corneal ulcers: extensive lesions of the epithelium, fluorescein stained see a wide stained array.

Parenchymal necrotizing keratitis.

Discoid keratitis: circular opaque cloudy like a disc, lesions in the parenchyma make the cornea thicker, not staining fluorescein dye.

There may also be uveitis or retinitis (seen in babies).

Shingles

The shingles virus (H. zoster) mainly causes disease in the elderly and people with reduced immunity. The first manifestation is mild fever, lymphadenopathy, increasing pain and appearance of blisters on the forehead. Characterized by herpes blisters only half the face and according to the distribution of the V1 nerve. The rash develops into blisters and pustules, which later become dry, scaly and scar. Shingles eye damage can be seen in 50% to 70% of cases and is very diverse:

Injury to the cornea: the most common is superficial keratitis or dendritic keratitis (different from a tree-like lesion in herpes, a twig in shingles with less fluorescein staining). There may also be discoid keratitis or pyelonephritis. The cornea can lose sensation, risk of corneal inflammation due to neurological nutrition. Sometimes there is dry eye, keratitis-sclera, and corneal ulcer at the edge.

Uveitis is accompanied by keratitis or occurs after keratitis.

Other lesions: inflammation and swelling of the eyelids that cause eyelid collapse, conjunctivitis (granular or pseudomembranous), scleritis, adrenalitis, retinitis and retinal vasculitis, neuritis, paralysis glaucoma, possibly glaucoma.

AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)

AIDS caused by the HIV virus is a serious disease in which a weakened immune system causes many opportunistic infections and malignant damage in different organs of the body. Eye injuries include:

Cotton retinopathy (AIDS retinopathy): A white, yellowish-white mark caused by necrosis of the retinal nerve fibers (a consequence of ischemia due to occlusion of capillaries by resistant complexes). antigen). Cotton lesions can be solitary and are present in more than 50% of AIDS patients.

Macrocytic retinitis is the main cause of vision loss in AIDS patients. Completely manifested is large necrotic retinal areas with bleeding. Retinal necrosis begins in the retinal's large artery, clearly delineated with the healthy retina, progressing to atrophy of the retina, or retinal detachment.

Kaposi sarcoma of the eyelids or conjunctiva: skin lesions are painless red-purple nodules, possibly with oedema. Conjunctivitis lesions are usually the same underlying map, dark red colour, easily confused with sub-conjunctival haemorrhage.

In addition, eye shingles, herpes keratitis, uveitis and toxoplasma retinitis, motor nerve paralysis, spleen oedema, atrophy, or narrowing of the market due to nerve damage.