This is a condition affecting boys in which there is hyperplasia of the glandular tissue of the breast resulting in enlargement of one or both breasts.
The diagnosis is based on demonstrating progressive pubertal development and increased growth rate, together with laboratory evidence of increased sex steroid production.
Children with CDGP may be treated with a short course of sex steroid therapy to promote physical development and growth (see Constitutional delay of growth and puberty).
The puberty stage can be rated using the Tanner staging system.
There are a number of different causes of high plasma calcium levels: · William’s syndrome. · Idiopathic infantile hypercalcaemia.
Patients with T1DM are at increased risk for a number of other autoimmune disorders.
Normal: systolic and diastolic <90th centile.
Blood in the urine (haematuria) may be visible to the naked eye or it may be microscopic and detected only by dipstick testing or by microscopy.
Infection is usually via the faecal-oral route. Pets and livestock can be hosts.
Jaundice occurs when serum bilirubin >25–30mmol/L. It is rare outside the neonatal period.
Normal stool frequency and consistency vary, e.g. breastfed infants may pass 10–12 stools per day, primary school children may pass stool from three times a day to once every three days.
Apnoea is defined as a lack of breathing. Obstructive apnoea refers to a lack of airflow in the face of respiratory effort.
Stridor is a noise heard during the inspiratory phase of breathing.
The optimal method for obtaining urine for bacteriology in a child <2yr old.
Overall incidence 74–5/10 000 births. There has been a dramatic fall in the last 50yrs.
Routine measurements · Measure within 1hr of birth: · Weight (term mean 73.5kg); · Head circumference (mean 735cm); · Body length (mean 750cm).
Incidence ~2–4/1000 live births. Usually occur 12–48hr after delivery.
LGA, cephalic–pelvic disproportion, malpresentation, precipitate delivery, instrumental delivery, shoulder dystocia, prematurity.
The aim of obstetrics is to monitor and promote foetal and maternal well-being during pregnancy and labour and to identify and manage high-risk pregnancies or complications.
The peak incidence of childhood accidental poisoning is between the ages of 2 and 3yrs.
Respiratory drive: pattern and timing of breathing may reflect a central or brainstem cause.
See Tables 3.1 and 3.2 for normal values of respiratory rate, heart rate (HR), and BP at different ages.
Lips and buccal mucosa: what is the colour of the mucous membranes and lips? Is the tongue in good condition? What is its colour? Are there any plaques, white patches, or spots?
Colour and cyanosis: examine the colour of the sclerae and conjunctivae.
For hands, mouth, tongue, and eyes see respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Assess whether the child is jaundiced.