How to use medicine for children

2021-01-30 12:00 AM

Do not use or be very cautious when administering to children drugs that adversely affect the development of the body, because children are developing bodies.

Anatomical and physiological characteristics of the child's body related to therapeutic drug use.

The drug is intended for use in children with a relatively higher dosage than that of an adult, because:

Basic metabolism of children is stronger than that of adults.

The proportion of water in the children's body in general and the percentage of foreign cells, in particular, is higher than that of adults.

Children's skin area is relatively larger than that of adults.

Some drugs that are highly toxic to children must be used in relatively lower doses than adults, because:

The detoxifying function of the liver is not fully completed.

The drug is easy to accumulate due to the weak filter function of the body.

The child's ability to bind proteins with drugs in the blood is poor.

Do not use or be very cautious when giving children drugs that adversely affect the development of the body, because children are developing bodies.

General principles of medication for children

Use only when indicated

Use antibiotics when you have an infection.

Use vitamins when there are risks or manifestations of vitamin deficiency.

Apply water and electrolytes when there is danger or signs of dehydration, electrolyte loss.

Use fever-reducing medicine when the child's temperature is> 38.5 degrees Celsius.

Use antihypertensive drugs, when the child has hypertension.

Before giving drugs to children must understand

Effects of the drug.

Drug dosage.

Side effects of medications.

Sugar put the drug into the body.

Time to take the medicine: what time, before, after or while eating.

Do not mix drugs together at random.

Monitor the effects of the drug

During and after taking the drug, to monitor the effects of the drug, including side effects. In some cases, it is possible to guide mothers to coordinate with nurses to monitor the effects of drugs.

Drug storage and preservation

Must instruct mothers to carefully store drugs, out of reach of children, not let children take medicines voluntarily, to prevent drug poisoning.

How to calculate drug dosage for children

There are many ways to calculate the dosage of medicine for children:

The most commonly used weight-based dosage calculator:

Dosing children = L Article adults younger CPC x weight (kg) / 70kg

The dosage can be calculated by age:

Dosing children = L Article adults x child's age (years) / age of children + 12

The method of calculating the dose according to the skin analysis is relatively more accurate than the above methods:

Dosing children = L Article adults x child's body surface area (m 2) / 1.73 m2

In addition, one can calculate the dosage of drugs for children according to basal metabolism or water metabolism. Although this method is precise but very complicated, it should only be used in laboratories or in drug application researchers.

Dosage of the drug for children can be calculated according to the adult dose (Table 1).

Sugar put the drug into the body

Oral

Drinking is the most physiological way of introducing drugs into the body because the intestines are a physical barrier that prevents many harmful agents, including bacteria. On the other hand, the absorption of the intestine is very good, taking the medicine does not cause pain for the child, is economical and causes fewer complications.

When giving medicine to children, attention should be paid:

Time to take the pill: take it during vomiting, when you are full or away from a meal:

Many oral drugs are blocked by food, which interferes with intestinal absorption. Therefore, they must be taken on an empty stomach: 1 hour before meals.

Some drugs work to irritate the stomach and their absorption is not affected by food, they must be given when they are full: drink after a meal or between meals.

There are some medications that can be given to either full or empty stomach, as they do not irritate the stomach and do not interfere with absorption by food.

Table: Dosage of drugs for children:

Year old

Weight

Skin area

Compared with adult dose

1 month

3.4 kg

0.23 m2

1/8

12.5%

2 months

4.2 kg

0.26 m2

1/7

14.5%

3 months

5.6 kg

0.32 m2

1/6

18.0%

6 months

7.7 kg

0.40 m2

1/5

22.0%

1 year old

10 kg

0.47 m2

1/4

25.0%

3 years old

14 kg

0.62 m2

1/3

33.0%

7 years old

23 kg

0.88 m2

1/2

50.0%

12 years old

37 kg

1.25 m2

3/4

75.0%

Adults

68 kg

1.73 m2

first

100%

What effect does crush drug have?

Before giving a pill to a child, we must know whether to crush or chew it or swallow it, because:

Some drugs are not chewed, not crushed such as pancreatic enzymes, laxatives (in pill form), Aspirin pH8, because they are protected with a thin film to not be destroyed by the acidic environment in the stomach. When down the rice paddy, with an alkaline environment, the thin film will be decomposed, the drug will begin to work. For young children, it is not possible to swallow the whole pill. Therefore, these drugs should not be indicated for use in children.

In contrast, some others have to chew before taking aspirin, because if they are pressed against the stomach lining, they will cause very strong irritation: edema, vasodilation, congestion and may cause stomach bleeding.

Do the ingredients of food or water affect medicine?

Some drugs are reduced absorption if taken with milk, tea or lost effect when used with alkaline solutions, etc.

The main downside to oral medications is that they can cause your child to vomit, either because the medicine is often bitter or because the child is afraid to take it. Therefore, it is very important to encourage careful guidance before giving medicine to children. The behaviours that make the importance of taking the medicine sometimes cause bad effects, making the child afraid or refuse to take the medicine, and easily induce vomiting. Therefore, on the market, there have been oral medicine bottles with sweet taste and aroma (including antibiotics) for use in children.

Intramuscular, subcutaneous injection

Should be used only in the absence of oral medications. The disadvantages of intramuscular injection are pain, can cause fibrosis of the organization, abscesses, stabbing nerve seconds, muscle atrophy. In addition, when there is a need for adequate means such as sterility, first aid and shock ... A very common downside is that it makes children scared not only during the injection but also for many years later, photo greatly affect the child's mental development.

Intravenous injection

This is the fastest way to put drugs into the body, reaching high concentrations immediately, but requires carefulness in the dosage of drugs and absolute sterility during injection. In addition, intravenous administration is often costly to the family of the child and requires skilled nursing staff.

One thing to note is that many drugs are for intramuscular use only, absolutely not for intravenous administration. In contrast, some drugs are intended for intravenous administration only, and cannot be used intramuscularly. Most injectable drugs will be broken down in the gastrointestinal tract or not absorbed if given to the patient.

Other routes

In addition, the drug can be put into the body by other routes such as anal, lozenge, throat spray, nebulizer, topical or paste on the skin, etc. These flavours are less applicable to young children, especially method of a lozenge, throat spray and applied on the skin.

Some drugs should not be used or should be used with caution in children

Antibiotic

Streptomycin: easy to cause permanent deafness and therefore can lead to mute, if given to young children.

Tetracycline: adversely affects developing tissues such as teeth, bones. Therefore, it is not intended for use by pregnant mothers, nursing mothers and children under 8-12 years old.

Anteroseptal: causes myasthenia gravis in children.

Antibiotics act at the level of DNA distribution of bacteria such as Tarivid, not for children under 16 years old and pregnant mothers, breastfeeding mothers.

Opium derivative group (session drug)

Many drugs on the market contain session medications:

Analgesics: Dolacgan, morphine.

Cough medicine: expectorant cough, Terpicod, decreased systemic cough.

Medications for defecation: Depression of session pills, tablets (Opizoic) ...

The above drugs are not intended for use in children under 5 years of age because they can cause apnea and death due to inhibition of the respiratory centre.

Vitamin

Oil-soluble vitamins: Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin K, Vitamin E easily accumulate in the body and cause poisoning. So only used when indicated and not for prolonged use.

Do not exceed the prescribed dose of Vitamin PP because it causes vasodilation, redness of the skin, and a drop in blood pressure.

Other Vitamins such as Bx, B2, B6, B12, C, P ... if taken in high doses for a long time can also be dangerous for children and adults.

Corticoids

Do not use excreted corticosteroids such as Kcort, Retacort ... because they will cause muscle atrophy at the injection site, osteoporosis, reduce the body's resistance.

Other types such as Prednisolone, Dexamethasone must use the right dose, at the right time, with enough time; should not be abused for prolonged use, causing many harmful side effects such as osteoporosis, adrenal insufficiency, sodium retention, hyperglycemia, decreased resistance, increased K excretion ... intended use: Anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive or alternative therapy with different dosage and duration of corticosteroids. The most common point is that all corticosteroids must be taken in the morning, after meals.

Interactions and incompatibilities between drugs

Incompatibility

Physic-chemical reactions occurring between drugs when mixed together are called drug incompatibilities.

For example, Ampicillin must not be mixed with Dd Glucose, Dextran, Lactate, Sodium bicarbonate, Vitamins of group B, Vitamin C, antibiotics of the aminoglycoside group.

Acid-based drugs should not be mixed with drugs that are alkaline. For example: Do not add Depersolon in infusion with sodium hydro carbonate solution.

Thus, drug incompatibility often occurs because the facilitator mixes the drugs together individually. Therefore, to prevent possible physical-chemical reactions, when injected or when taken by mouth should not mix drugs together.

Interactive

A drug interaction is an interaction in the body between drugs when they are taken together and as a result, increase their effect (and toxicity) or decrease their effectiveness, sometimes possible. loss of effectiveness of the drug.

For example, Erythromycin reduces the clearance of Theophylline, Diaphylin, and Caffeine, thus making the toxicity of these drugs increased, especially for children. Also, Erythromycin itself, if used in combination with the second-generation antihistamines such as Terfenadine, Astemizole can be toxic to the heart such as torsion, ventricular tachycardia and can be fatal.

With the mechanism of drug interaction, the antibiotic Nystatin loses its antifungal effect of Candida albicans when used concomitantly with Vitamin B 2.

When combining drugs in treatment, especially antibiotic combinations, physicians need to consider drug interactions in the body. In principle, bactericidal antibiotics with bacteriostatic antibiotics should not be combined. However, sometimes it is not possible to combine 2 antibiotics with the same mechanism of action on the bacteria. For example, Clorocid and Erythromycin are both bacteriostatic antibiotics, but they are attached to the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thus reducing the effects of each other.

When combining antibiotics, physicians often choose a synergistic effect between one that kills (or inhibits the reproduction) of gram (+) bacteria and another that kills (or inhibits reproduction) of gram (-) bacteria. In order to expand its effect spectrum, or this antibiotic will create conditions for another antibiotic to kill bacteria or combine an antibiotic that is destroyed by the yeast secreted by bacteria and an antibiotic that is stable with that enzyme.

Effects, dosages and administration of some common children

Antipyretics

Paracetamol:

Effect: is an antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug in the Para - aminophenol group. Although its antipyretic and analgesic effects are not better than that of other types in the same group, Paracetamol has the advantage of being inexpensive and less causing Methemoglobin. With oral dose, Paracetamol is almost completely absorbed into the bloodstream. However, if taken with foods rich in glaucid, the absorption process is more intense. Duration of action: 6 - 8 hours.

Drug form:

Tablets, powder packages: 0.1g; 0.2g; 0.5g.

Pillar capsule: 0.4g; 0.5g.

Ammo: 0.1g, 0.2g, 0.5g.

Dosage: 10-15mg / kg / time, use 1-4 times a day.

How to use: When the fever is over 38.5 degrees Celsius, give the child a pill, powder pack or suppository.

Note: In the case of a child with high fever, cold hands and feet, paracetamol often proves ineffective, so another fever-reducing drug should be used.

Analgen:

Effect: as an antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug in the Pyrazalone group; It is the most active drug in the group, but also has the disadvantage of causing allergies and anaphylaxis, especially when used by intramuscular or intravenous administration.

Drug form:

Tablet, powder package: 0.1g, 0.5g.

             Ammo: 0.1g; 0.2g; 0.5g

            Syringe: 25%; 50%; 1ml; 2ml; 5ml.

Vials to drink: 50% - 10ml (1ml = 20 drops = 0.5g).

Dosage: 8 - 10mg / kg / time x 1-4 times / day.

Note: Analgen proved to be effective in cases of high fever, cold limbs and failure when using Paracetamol.

Aspirin:

Effects: An anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic in the Acetylsalicylic Acid group.

Drug form:

Tablets: 0.1g; 0.2g; 0.25g; 0.325g, 0.5g.

Capsules (Aspirin pH8): 60mg; 500 mg.

Amount:

Children under 3 years old: 0.1g / year / time; Drink 1-3 times a day.

Children 3 - 5 years old: 0.075g / year / time; Drink 1-3 times a day.

Children 6 - 10 years old: 0.05g / year / time; Drink 1-3 times a day.

In rheumatism: 60-100mg / kg / day according to regimen.

How to use:

Tablets: Chewed or crushed and drink with plenty of water after a meal (when full). Aspirin is rarely used to reduce a fever because it must be taken when it is full and causes stomach irritation.

Capsules (Aspirin pH8): Do not break, do not crush, do not chew, do not drink with alkaline solutions. Must swallow the whole tablet. Therefore, this drug is rarely used in children.

Central nervous system inhibitors

Cardenal; Phenobarbital:

Effects: Sedative, sedative, anticonvulsant.

Drug form:

            Tablets: 0.01g; 0.1g.

            Syringe: 0.2g.

Dosage for sedation: 0.01g / year / time for children under 10 years old.

Children from 10 years old and older are used as adults 0.1g / time.

How to use:

Drink: Use 1 time before going to bed or spread evenly during the day as directed by the physician.

Injections: Only used when the child is having convulsions (because it cannot be given to drink while the child is convulsing).

Valium (Diazepam, Valium):

Effects: Sedative, muscle relaxant, anti-spasmodic, inducing sleep.

Drug form:

Tablets: 5mg, 10mg.

Tube: 10mg.

Dosage: 0.5 - 1mg / kg / day.

How to use:

Often given to children to drink evenly throughout the day for the purpose of anticonvulsants.

Intramuscular injection, intravenous injection when the child is having convulsions.

Sympathomimetics

Sympathomimetics work to relax bronchial muscles, dilate blood vessels in important organs such as the brain, heart, lungs, and cause constriction of blood vessels in the mesenteric, intestine, and skin. They are used in the case of children having difficulty breathing due to bronchial muscle spasm, and in bronchial asthma, spasmodic bronchitis. This group of drugs is usually taken by the hour, not related to fullness, hunger.

In pediatrics often used:

Ephedrine: 1-2mg / kg / day in 3 divided doses.

Theophylline: 10mg / kg / day in 3 divided doses.

Diaphilin (Theophylline 80% and Ethylenediamine 20%): 10mg / kg / day.

Salbutamol: 0.3 - 0.4mg / kg / day.

Anti-allergy medicine

In this group are the sedative and the non-sedative:

Types of sleep (anti-histamine I) have Dimedone, Promethazine (oral dose of 1-2mg / kg / day), Chlorpheniramine, Peirsol, Suprastin, Tavegin, Ketotifen, Cimetidine. Of the above drugs, only Promethazine should be taken after a meal, the rest are usually taken at bedtime (hungry) or in between meals.

Non-sedating type (Antihistamine II) is a new type of drug produced such as Claritin (Loratadine), Terfenadine, Cetirizine, Astemizol ...

Antibiotic

Antibiotic (antibiotic) is substances capable of killing bacteria or inhibiting the reproduction of microorganisms. When appointing antibiotics, it is necessary to understand clearly the type of bacteria and the spectrum of effects of the antibiotic. In addition, it is necessary to firmly grasp the ability to distribute drugs in different organs. Contraindications, side effects, and drug administration also play a very important role, so care should be taken.

Penicillin (lactamin) group:

Penicillin is an antibiotic produced by fungi. It has a bactericidal effect by inhibiting the synthesis of bacterial cell membranes during the reproductive stage. The difference between the drugs in this group is the method of manufacture. Penicillin is derived from fungi, has a narrow spectrum of effects, can kill gram (+) cocci and cannot kill penicillinase-producing bacteria such as staphylococcus aureus. Since the 70s of the last century, people have made penicillin by semi-synthetic methods to create penicillin that are not damaged by penicillinase such as methicillin, oxacillin and broader spectrum like ampicillin. Amoxicillin or those with a longer damage time in the body such as Extancilin.

In terms of effects, Penicillin is capable of killing gram (+) streptococci such as streptococci, pneumococcus and some non-penicillinase staphylococci. In addition, this group also works well with syphilis spirochetes and some gram (-) cocci such as gonorrhea, meningitis. The difference of each drug in the Penicillin group is absorption through the gastrointestinal tract, time of damage in the body, the level of drugs in the organs and the spectrum of action. Penicillin are commonly used, but they are drugs that often cause allergic reactions, especially anaphylaxis.

Some drugs in the penicillin group:

- Penicillin V (Phenoxymethylpenicillin):

Effect spectrum: Mainly gram (+) cocci do not create penicillinase enzyme, syphilis spirochetes and gram (-) bacteria such as gonorrhea.

Drug form: Tablets 200,000 units, 400,000 units, and 1,000,000 units.

Dosage: 50,000 - 100,000 units / kg / day.

Usage: Drink when hungry, 1 hour before meals.

- penicillin G:

Effect spectrum: Mainly gram (+) cocci do not create penicillinase enzyme, syphilis spirochetes and some gram (-) bacteria such as gonorrhea, meningococcal meningitis.

Drug form: There are 2 salts, Na (Benzylpenicillin Natrium or Sodium) and K (Benzylpenicillin kalium or Potassium) in bottles or tubes of 200,000 VND, 500,000 units and 1,000,000 units.

Dosage: 50,000 - 200,000 VND / kg / day.

Usage: Intramuscular or slow intravenous use 2 times a day. Before the injection must test the reaction.

Note: Penicillin Potassium salt is not administered intravenously because each vial contains 17.5mg of Potassium. penicillin G is destroyed in acidic and alkaline medium, so it is not intended for oral use.

- penicillin - Procaine:

Penicillin is slowly excreted. After 1 injection, the drug damages in the body for 12 - 24 hours.

Effect spectrum: Mainly gram (+) cocci do not create penicillinase enzyme, syphilis spirochetes and gram (-) bacteria such as gonorrhea.

Drug form: bottle of 300,000 units; 400,000 units and 600,000 units.

Dosage: 50,000 units / kg / day.

Usage: Intramuscular injection only, once a day at fixed time.

- Benzathine penicillin (Reta pen; Extancilin):

Penicillin is excreted very acutely. After each injection, the drug damages in the body for 3 to 4 weeks.

Effect spectrum: Mainly gram (+) cocci do not create penicillinase enzyme, syphilis spirochetes and gram (-) bacteria such as streptococcus.

Drug form: 600,000, 1,200,000, 2,400,000 and 4,800,000 units.

Dosage: Children under 7 years old: 600,000 VND / time / 3-4 weeks.

Children from 7 years old and over: 1,200,000 VND / time / 3 - 4 weeks.

Usage: Butt injection (deep intramuscular injection) only 3- or 4-weeks injection 1 time in case of treatment for prevention of relapse of rheumatoid disease, and 1 injection in case of strep throat.

Attention: If a child has a penicillin allergy, Benzathine Penicillin should not be used.

- Ampicillin:

Effects: Has a broader spectrum of effects than Penicillin, killing gram (+) bacteria such as penicillin and some gram (-) bacteria such as E.coli, Shigella, and Salmonella.

Drug form: Tablet, capsule 250mg; 500mg; 1000mg.

500mg injection vial; 1000mg.

Dosage: Oral: 50 - 200 mg / kg / day.

Inject: 25 - 200mg / kg / day

Usage: Drink when hungry, 30 minutes - 1 hour before meals.

Poor absorption from the intestine into the blood. Therefore, Ampicillin tablets should not be used in the treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

Intramuscular or intravenous injection is well absorbed through the meningeal spinal cord. Therefore, it can be used in the treatment of meningitis caused by susceptible bacteria.

- Amoxicillin:

Has the same effect as Ampicillin, but its absorption from the digestive tract is 2-3 times better than Ampicillin.

Drug form: 250mg tablet or capsule; 500mg.

Dosage: 20-40mg / kg / day.

Usage: Drink when hungry, 1 hour before meals.

- Methicillin:

Effect spectrum: Kills bacteria gr am (+) and not destroyed by Penicillinase enzyme. Therefore, it is often used to treat dangerous diseases caused by staphylococci such as acne, boils, muscle abscesses, blood infection, pleural effusion ...

Drug form: 500mg, 1000mg vial.

Dosage: 100mg-200mg / kg / day.

Usage: Intramuscular injection.

- Oxacillin, Dicloxacillin:

Effects: Has a spectrum of effects like methicillin, but has good absorption from the digestive tract.

Drug form: Tablets: 250mg; 500mg.

Injection vial: 125mg; 250mg; 500mg.

Dosage: 100-200 mg / kg / day.

Usage: Drink when hungry, 1 hour before meals or 2 hours after meals.

Intramuscular injection or intravenous injection.

- Azolidine, Mezlocillin:

It is a 3rd generation antibiotic, has a broad spectrum of effects, is very well absorbed in the cerebrospinal fluid, and is often indicated for use in severe cases such as sepsis, meningitis (intravenous use).

Group Cephalosporin

Effects: Has a bactericidal effect on gram (+) and gram (-) bacteria, including bacteria that produce Penicillinase yeast (staphylococcus aureus).

In this group include Cephalosporin:

Generation I (Gsfadroxil, Cefalexin, Cephalothin, Carazo] in, Csíradin, Cfapirin ...).

Generation II (Cefamandole, Cefuroxime ...).

3rd generation (Cefoperazon, Cefotaxime, Cefpodoxime, Ceftazidime, Ceftriaxone ...).

4th generation (Cefepime, Cefpirome ...).

Compared with generation I, II, drugs of generation III are more effective against gram (-) bacteria, but less effective against gram (+) bacteria; while drugs of the IV generation work very well, so they are often used in severe cases.

The pills in this group, when taken orally, are 100% absorbed into the bloodstream, but the rate of absorption is related to the food, so it is advised to take it on an empty stomach. However, a few of this group are best absorbed when taken on a full stomach like Cefuroxime. Therefore, when using oral drugs in this group, we must carefully read the instructions for patients to use effectively.

- Cefalexin:

Drug form: Tablet: 250mg; 500mg.

Injection vial: 500mg; 1000mg.

Dosage: 25-50mg / kg / day.

Usage: The drug is completely absorbed into the bloodstream, so it should be taken on an empty stomach first

1-hour meal or intramuscular injection, intravenous injection.

- Claforan (Cefotaxime):

The 3rd generation Cephalosporin has a broader spectrum of effects and has a better ability to penetrate the meningeal-medulla, but to staphylococci, it is less effective than Cefalexin.

Drug form: Vials for injection: 0.5g; 1g; 2g.

Dosage: 1 - 3g / day.

Usage: Intravenous or intramuscular injection.

Nh om Aminoglycoside:

- Neomycin, Monomycin, Kanamycin:

Effects: has a broad spectrum of effects, killing gram (-) bacteria and gram (+) bacteria. Side effect is toxic to the body and auditory nerve seconds. Particularly, Kanamycin is almost not absorbed into the bloodstream if used orally. The drugs in this group can be taken on a full or empty stomach.

Drug form: Tablets: 125mg, 250mg. 250mg, 500mg vial.

Dosage: 7 - 15mg / kg / day depending on the drug.

Usage: Intramuscular injection 1-2 times / day in the afternoon, evening.

- Gentamycin:

Effect: Kill bacteria against gram (-) bacteria and gram (+) bacteria. Side effect is toxic to the body and auditory nerve seconds.

Drug form: tube, bottle 20mg; 40mg; 80mg; 100mg and 200mg.

Dosage: 2 - 5mg / kg / day.

Usage: Intravenous injection or intramuscular injection 1 time / day in the afternoon, evening (In the evening, it will reduce the toxicity of the drug 2-3 times compared to injection in the morning).

- Amikacin:

Effects: A third-generation Aminoglycoside has a stronger effect and is less toxic than Gentamycin.

Drug form: 100mg; 200mg; 500mg.

Dosage: 10-20mg / kg / day.

Usage: Intravenous or intramuscular injection 1-2 times a day.

Nh ó m Macrolides:

Drugs in this group have bacteriostatic effects (inhibit the reproduction of bacteria) and have a narrow spectrum of gram (+) bacteria. The biggest disadvantage of this group is that if the dose is not used enough, it quickly causes resistance and causes cross-resistance, which means creating strains of bacteria resistant to other antibiotics. In addition to causing allergic reactions, this group of antibiotics also has side effects that cause jaundice, affecting liver function. Therefore, they are classified as antibiotic reserve, meaning that they can only be used when absolutely necessary and restricted for use in children. Drugs in this group include Oleandomycin, Oletetrin (combining Oleandomycin with Tetracycline in the ratio of 1: 1) for orally at full, divided equally 3 times a day. Particularly for Erythromycin, it is necessary to drink on an empty stomach, 30-60 minutes before meals.

Noteworthy:

Not used in combination with second generation antihistamines (Terfendin, Astemizol), because it is toxic to the heart, leading to ventricular tachycardia, and death.

Not to be used in combination with Theophylline, Diaphilin, Caffeine, because it reduces excretion and increases the toxicity of the last 3 drugs.

Nh om Laevomycetin :

In this group are Laevomycetin (Clorocid) very bitter and Leucomycin stearas is not bitter. They are bacteriostatic antibiotics and have a wide spectrum of effects against bacteria gram (+), gram (-) and some viruses. When using tablets, give children to drink on an empty stomach, 20-30 minutes before meals or 1 hour after meals. Intravenous injection only in severe cases. Do not combine drugs in this group with the macrolide group (Erythromycin), as they will decrease the effects of each other.

Nh om Rutamycin:

This heading includes antibiotics produced by the semi-synthetic method of ray fungus (Streptomyces Mediterranean). They have a bactericidal effect with a wide spectrum of effects against gram (+), gram (-) bacteria and against tuberculosis bacilli. During the use of the drug, the patient has red urine.

- Rutamycin sv:

Effects: Infections caused by staphylococcus aureus and staphylococci (+), tuberculosis.

Drug form: 1.5ml = 125mg tube, 3ml = 250mg for intramuscular injection.

10ml = 500mg vial for intravenous administration. Use: 10-30mg / kg / day.

- Rifampicin:

Effects: Tuberculosis, leprosy and other infections.

Drug form: 50mg, 150mg, 300mg capsule.

Dosage: Use 8 -10mg / kg / day, take 1 time, on an empty stomach, 30-60 minutes before breakfast.

- The sulfanilamide group:

All drugs in this group are created by synthetic methods. With bacteriostatic mechanism, causing metabolic disturbances by displacing the para-aminobenzoic acid of bacteria, sulffamids are effective against most bacteria.

Gram (+), Gram (-) and most of the drugs in this group (except Ganidan) are very well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, excreted through the body almost intact.

Co-trimoxazole (Trimazol; Biseptol; Aseptrim; Potesept; Sumetrolim ...):

Including 2 substances are Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim with the ratio 1/5:

120mg tablets (100mg Sulfamethoxazole and 20mg Trimethoprim).

240mg tablet (200mg Sulfamethoxazole and 40mg Trimethoprim).

480mg tablet (400mg sulfamethoxazole and 80mg Trimethoprim).

960mg tablets (800mg sulfamethoxazole and 160mg Trimethoprim).

480mg syringe for intravenous infusion (rarely used).

Whether oral or injected are very well absorbed into the bloodstream, concentrating with high concentrations in the lungs, ear - nose - throat, and urinary tract. Children should drink when they are full.

- Streptocid:

Only works with streptococcus, drinking very well absorbed. Be careful not to confuse this medication with a TB medicine with a close name streptomycin!

- Sulphaguanidine (Ganidan):

Not absorbed through the intestine, currently rarely used.

Digestive yeast

Digestive yeast actually:

These are digestive enzymes obtained from the pancreas, or animal's stomach lining. For example, Pancreatin from cow pancreas, Pepsin from pig stomach used to digest protein. These yeasts are taken immediately before meals 10-15 minutes. Particularly Pepsin should be used with hydrochloric acid 1% solution, while Pancreatin should be taken with water and saline (sodium hydro carbonate). These drugs are often used for the elderly and those who have had gastric bypasses.

Digestive yeast of microbial origin:

These are the types of microorganisms that are present in the large intestine. Thanks to them, the excess, indigestible substances in the stomach and small intestine will be broken down in the large intestine, allowing the stool to "ripen" and a rotten smell due to the production of hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S). When the child takes antibiotics for a long time, all kinds of microorganisms in the large intestine are destroyed, the child will defecate "alive". In this case, it is indicated to use digestive enzymes derived from microorganisms such as Biolactyl, Subtilize, Neolatry ... Each package or capsule contains 1-2 billion microorganisms. It is worth noting that antibiotics should not be used during the time the children are taking these probiotics. The use of these drugs in acute diarrhea is unfounded and costly for the family of the child.

Diuretic

Diuretics are widely used in the body failure, heart failure, hypertension, because their nature is to inhibit the reabsorption of Na in the trunk, meaning that increased Na excretion leads to increased water excretion. out of the body.

Hypnotized (Hydro clothianidin): A diuretic that inhibits Na and K reabsorption mainly in the proximal tubule.

Drug form: Tablets: 0.025g; 0.1g + Dosage: 2 - 4mg / kg / day.

Usage: Drink 1-2 times a day in the morning, when full. Each wave usually uses 3-5 days, rest 3 - 4 days.

Furosemide (Lasik, Lasilic, Trofurit) :

Furosemide is a powerful diuretic, which inhibits Na and K reabsorption in the proximal tubule, distal tubule and the ascending segment of the Henle loop.

Drug form: Tablets: 0.04g; tube: 0.01g; 0.02g.

Dosage: 1-3mg / kg / day.

Usage: Drink once a day in the morning, when full.

Intravenous or intramuscular injection in severe cases, several times a day (20 - 500mg / day).