Paediatrics: Type 1 diabetes mellitus - associated illnesses

2021-04-15 03:10 PM

Patients with T1DM are at increased risk for a number of other autoimmune disorders.

Type 1 diabetes mellitus: associated illnesses

Patients with T1DM are at increased risk for a number of other autoimmune disorders.

The most important of these are the following:

  • Autoimmune thyroiditis: up to 5% develop hypothyroidism.
  • Coeliac disease:

      the prevalence rate of 5–10%;

      usually atypical symptoms or asymptomatic.

  • Adrenal insufficiency: uncommon.

Testing for thyroid autoantibodies, thyroid function tests (TSH and free T4), together with a coeliac disease antibody screen (transglutaminase or endomysial antibodies), should be carried out on an annual basis for the early detection and treatment of these disorders.

Screening and long-term monitoring

Glycaemic control 

Glycated haemoglobin index (HbA1c) measured every 3–4mths.

Growth and development

  • Height/weight/BMI (regularly at the clinic).
  •  Puberty stage (annual).

 Microvascular complications

  •  Microalbuminuria screening:

      urine dipstick test (regularly at the clinic);

      3  early morning urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (annual screening).

  • Retinopathy screening: retinal photography (annual screening).
  • Neuropathy (rare).
  • Associated autoimmune disease:

      thyroid disease (annual);

      coeliac disease (annual).